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Revista chilena de infectología

versión impresa ISSN 0716-1018

Resumen

BARROS M, Manuel; CARTAGENA S, Claudia  y  BAVESTRELLO F, Luis. Prevention of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Rev. chil. infectol. [online]. 2005, vol.22, suppl.1, pp.s67-s74. ISSN 0716-1018.  http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0716-10182005000400009.

Polysaccharide 23 valent pneumococcal vaccine commercially available from 1983 includes 23 serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae, representing near 90% of strains involved in invasive pneumococcal disease in immune competent adults. Vaccine confers protection against invasive pneumococcal disease. Immunization is recommended in adults over 65 years old, in patients affected by chronic diseases (cardiopathies, COPD, nephropathies, diabetes mellitus, hepatic cirrhosis, chronic breakage in brain-blood barrier, functional or anatomical asplenia, alcoholism), in immunocompromised hosts, including HIV infection, chemotherapy treatment and hematological malignancies. Influenza vaccine is prepared with particulated antigens, including two influenza A strains and one influenza B strain, selected according to influenza epidemiological worldwide surveillance the year before. On account of continuous antigenic changes (drifts), it is necessary to modify the vaccine antigen's composition yearly. Cost/effectiveness evaluation has confirmed the efficacy of influenza vaccine in reducing morbidity and mortality associated to influenza epidemic and health economical resources involved in patient care. Besides, clinical trials have confirmed that immunization reduces the risk of acquiring pneumonia, of hospitalization and death in elderly people during the influenza epidemic, when vaccine antigenic composition is similar to the circulating strains. Vaccination is recommended annually in healthy adults over 65 years old, in patients with chronic diseases (cardiopathies, COPD, nephropathies, diabetes mellitus, hepatic cirrhosis, chronic breakage of blood-brain barrier, functional or anatomical asplenia, alcoholism). It is also recommended in women who will be in the second or third trimester of pregnancy during the influenza season, in immunocompromised hosts, in institutionalized patients (geriatrics), health care workers, and travelers to geographical areas that are affected by the influenza epidemic

Palabras clave : pneumonia; preventive measures; prophylaxis; prevention and control.

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