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Revista chilena de infectología

versión impresa ISSN 0716-1018


QUINTEROS A, Roxanna et al. Amphotericin B deoxycholate prescription and adverse events in a Chilean university hospital. Rev. chil. infectol. [online]. 2010, vol.27, n.1, pp.25-33. ISSN 0716-1018.

Amphotericin B deoxycholate is associated with infusion-related toxicity and renal toxicity. Purpose: To evaluate medical indications of this compound in a tertiary care center, analyze adverse reactions, infusion protocols and outcome of treated patients. Patients and methods: Retrospective analysis of 39 treatments indicated in 33 patients during 2007, exploring indications, infusion protocols and renal protective measures, infusion-related adverse reactions, nephrotoxicity, hypokalemia and outcomes. Results: On average, therapy lasted 12 days (2 to 39) and reached 600 mg of accumulated dose (100 to 1950) respectively. 24-hours infusions were applied in 63.2% of prescriptions and 35.9% received a 4-6 hour infusion schedule. In addition, 36.8% received daily a saline infusion before amphotericin. Adverse reactions were observed in 40% of treatments, predominating fever (25%). Nonetheless, nephrotoxicity was infrequent (9.4%), of low magnitude, only affecting patients without previous renal disease, and not requiring dialysis. Hypokalemia developed in 21.6% of treatments. More than half of medical indications were empirical (59%), for presumed infections by either filamentous fungi or yeasts. In the subgroup with microbiological information, main indications were invasive aspergillosis (15.4% of total), systemic candidiasis (12.8%) or meningeal cryptococcosis (10.3%). A favorable response was registered in 41%, and only 48.5% of patients survived. In a multivariate analysis, only age > 60 years remained as an independent factor for developing infusion-related adverse reactions. In the same manner, a SOFA score > 3 and corticosteroids administration at the same time than amphotericin B, were independently associated to a fatal outcome. Conclusion: infusion-related adverse reactions are frequent during amphotericin B deoxycholate therapy, but renal toxicity is occasionally observed. Amphotercin B was used mainly as empirical therapy in this study.

Palabras clave : Amphotericin B deoxycholate; drug toxicity; nephrotoxicity; utilization.

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