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Revista chilena de infectología

versión impresa ISSN 0716-1018

Resumen

PENA, Anamaría et al. Prevention of vertical transmission and side effects of antiretroviral therapy in children born to HIV-positive South Eastern area of Santiago, Chile: 15-years perspective. Rev. chil. infectol. [online]. 2013, vol.30, n.6, pp.644-652. ISSN 0716-1018.  http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0716-10182013000600012.

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has shown to be an effective measure in decreasing HIV vertical transmission (VT). Nevertheless, it is not free from adverse effects in the newborn: risk of prematurity, low birth weight, metabolic disorders, among others. Despite the importance of the subject, there are few national data that analyze the problem. We performed a retrospective analysis of a cohort of HIV positive mother/child binomial, followed between 1995 and 2010. Ninety-four pregnancies and 96 children (2 twin pregnancies) were analyzed. The rate of VT was 2.1%. Adverse effects attributed to ART were found on 85.4% of the newborn; highlighting the presence of anemia (70.8%) and several metabolic disorders [elevated lactate without acidosis (29.2%), lactic acidosis (12.5%), hyperkalemia (14.6%), metabolic acidosis (9.4%)]. Maternal exposure to protease inhibitors proved to be an independent risk factor for the development of metabolic disorders in newborns (OR 0.15 [0.04-0.48], p < 0.01). In our series, ART was effective in reducing the VT, however exposed newborns showed a high frequency of adverse effects, so it is advisable to implement programs for monitoring these patients to prevent sequelae.

Palabras clave : Human immunodeficiency virus; pregnancy; vertical transmission; perinatal antiretroviral treatment; HIV-1 exposed newborn; adverse effects.

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