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Revista chilena de infectología

versión impresa ISSN 0716-1018

Resumen

NOCUA-BAEZ, Laura Cristina et al. Azoles of then and now: a review. Rev. chil. infectol. [online]. 2020, vol.37, n.3, pp.219-230. ISSN 0716-1018.  http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/s0716-10182020000300219.

The azoles are drugs that inhibit the 14α-sterol-demethylase enzyme preventing the binding of ergosterol, altering the functionality and structure of the fungal cell wall. Especially the group of triazoles: fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole and isavuconazole, are a pharmacological alternative for the treatment of the invasive fungal disease, caused by Aspergillus spp, Candida spp, Cryptococcus spp, by emerging pathogens for example, the Mucoral and finally of endemic mycosis as those caused by Histoplasma spp. and Coccidioides spp. The adverse effects of the triazoles are less frequent compared to those caused by amphotericin B, the main ones being hepatics, gastrointestinals and cardiovasculars, such as the prolongation of the QT interval. The pharmacological interactions are common and occur with molecules that use the substrates of the CYP3A4 cytochrome, for example: antiretroviral, anti-tuberculous and immunomodulators. The history, pharmacological characteristics and clinical trials are reviewed.

Palabras clave : azoles/administration and dosage; azoles/therapeutic use; azoles/pharmacology; azoles/adverse events; candidiasis; candidiasis/therapy; aspergillosis; aspergillosis/therapy; cryptococosis; cryptococosis/therapy; histoplasmosis; histoplasmosis/therapy; mucormycosis; mucormycosis/therapy.

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