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Revista chilena de infectología

versión impresa ISSN 0716-1018

Resumen

TORRES, Juan Pablo et al. Respiratory viral infections during episodes of fever in children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Rev. chil. infectol. [online]. 2020, vol.37, n.4, pp.371-382. ISSN 0716-1018.  http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0716-10182020000400371.

Background:

Children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) can develop respiratory viral infections (RVI) during fever episodes. There are few data about clinical outcomes in RVI and compared to bacterial infections (BI) in this population.

Aim:

To determine clinical outcome of RVI, compared to BI in children with HSCT.

Methods:

Prospective study, patients ≤ 18 years with cancer and HSCT admitted with fever at a National Bone Marrow Transplant Center (Hospital Calvo Mackenna), Chile, (April-2016 to May-2019). Clinical assessment, laboratory tests, blood cultures, nasopharyngeal sample for multiplex-PCR (Filmarray®), viral loads by PCR and cytokine panel (Luminex®, 38 cytokines) were performed. The following outcomes were evaluated: upper/lower respiratory tract disease (RTD), admission to ICU, mechanical ventilation, mortality and antimicrobial withdrawal.

Results:

Of 56 febrile episodes, 35 (63%) were RVI, 12 (21%) BI and 9 (16%) with unknown etiology (UE). Median of age was 8.5 years, 62% male gender. Rhinovirus (54%) and coronavirus (15%) were the more frequent detected viruses. No significant differences in cytokine levels were observed between RVI and BI. 94% of RVI patients had symptomatic RTD, versus 33% in BI and 33% in UE group (p < 0.001), with lower-RTD in 69% of RVI group (p < 0,001). Admission to ICU was 11% in RVI, 17% in BI and 11% in UE group (p = 0.88); only 2 patients required mechanical ventilation (p = 0.37) and no mortality was reported. After an RVI was detected by PCR, antimicrobials were withdrawal in 26% of patients with RVI (p: 0.04).

Conclusion:

RVI are frequent etiologic agents in febrile episodes of patients with HSCT. Viral detection might help to rationalize the use of antimicrobials in this population.

Palabras clave : children; cancer; hematopoietic stem cell transplant; respiratory viral infection; multiplex polymerase chain reaction.

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