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Biological Research

Print version ISSN 0716-9760

Abstract

ARANCIBIA, SERGIO A et al. Toll-like Receptors are Key Participants in Innate Immune Responses. Biol. Res. [online]. 2007, vol.40, n.2, pp.97-112. ISSN 0716-9760.  http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0716-97602007000200001.

During an infection, one of the principal challenges for the host is to detect the pathogen and activate a rapid defensive response. The Toll-like family of receptors (TLRs), among other pattern recognition receptors (PRR), performs this detection process in vertebrate and invertebrate organisms. These type I transmembrane receptors identify microbial conserved structures or pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Recognition of microbial components by TLRs initiates signaling transduction pathways that induce gene expression. These gene products regulate innate immune responses and further develop an antigen-specific acquired immunity. TLR signaling pathways are regulated by intracellular adaptor molecules, such as MyD88, TIRAP/Mal, between others that provide specificity of individual TLR- mediated signaling pathways. TLR-mediated activation of innate immunity is involved not only in host defense against pathogens but also in immune disorders. The involvement of TLR-mediated pathways in auto-immune and inflammatory diseases is described in this review article

Keywords : Toll-like receptors; Innate Immunity; cytokines; MyD88; NFkB.

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