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Biological Research

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VALENZUELA, Carlos Y. Human Sociogenetics. Biol. Res. [online]. 2011, vol.44, n.4, pp.393-404. ISSN 0716-9760.

In three cities of Chile (Santiago, Valparaiso, Valdivia) the A allele and phenotype (ABO blood group) are more frequent in the higher socioeconomic strata (SES) and the O allele and phenotype are in the lower ones. This constitutes a structured sociogenetic cline (SGC). The B allele and phenotypes (B+AB) present a rather erratic or contradictory distribution among SES. This SGC was also found in England. The standard interpretation of the origin and maintenance of this SGC in Chile is founded on socio-ethno-historic-cultural and drift factors followed by socioeconomic assortative mating that has occurred since the origin of Chileans by the admixture of Europeans and Amerindians. This interpretation is insufficient to explain the coincidence of the cline in England and Chile, and for some findings in Chile. 1) The A and Rh(-) frequencies of the highest SES in Chile are significantly higher than those found in Europeans. 2) The B gene and phenotypes (with AB) behave differently and in contradiction to the socio-ethno-cultural-historical process. 3) There is a significant interaction of the SGC with gender in Chile and England. There is not at present a putative relationship between ABO and psycho-social factors that could account for this sociogenetic interaction. This SGC seems to be present in societies with a hierarchical organization in relation to power, prestige, ownership, income and life style, and when sampling includes the most extreme SES. It has not been found in two samples from Ireland and in a sample from Chile taken from a public hospital, probably because those variables and conditions were not ascertained.

Keywords : ABO; Chile; England; Rh; socioeconomic strata; sociogenetics.

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