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Revista chilena de enfermedades respiratorias

On-line version ISSN 0717-7348

Abstract

CARRILLO A., Juan et al. Risk of obstructive sleep apnea and levels of physical activity and its association with elevated cardiovascular risk in chilean adults. Rev. chil. enferm. respir. [online]. 2019, vol.35, n.1, pp.22-32. ISSN 0717-7348.  http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-73482019000100022.

Introduction:

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

Subjects and methods:

3,657 subjects between 30 and 74 years-old ( x ¯: 50.1 ± 12.1 SD) from 2010 Chilean National Health Survey were selected. Risk of OSA was estimated using a clinical prediction rule (CPR) based on the variables of the STOP-Bang Questionnaire. According to their score they were classified as LOW (< 3), MEDIUM (3-4) and HIGH (≥ 5) risk of OSA. Their physical activity level (PAL) was classified into 3 levels: Low, Moderate and High, according to the self-reported results with the GPAQ questionnaire. To study the association between the risk of OSA and PAL with High / Very High CVR (≥ 10%, Framingham) we constructed a logistic regression model adjusted for sex, age, BMI, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, high total cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol, high triglycerides, educational level, smoking and self-reported sleep hours.

Results:

3,098 subjects were classified as OSA risk: LOW 1.683 (54.3%), MEDIUM 1.116 (36%) and HIGH 299 (9.7%). The PAL was evaluated in 3,570 subjects and classified as: Low 1,093 (30.6%), Moderate 705 (19.7%), and High 1,772 (49.6%). The CVR was determined in 3,613 subjects, and 711 (19.7%) classified as High/Very High risk. The regression model shows: MEDIUM risk an OR = 1.75 (1.05 – 2.90, p = 0.03), HIGH risk an OR = 3.86 (1.85-8.06, p < 0.001). For the PAL Low an OR = 1.14 (0.75-1.74, p = 0.525), PAL Moderate an OR = 1.18 (0.73-1.92, p = 0.501). Conclusion: The MEDIUM and HIGH risk of OSA, but not the self-reported PAL, constitute an independent risk factor for high cardiovascular risk.

Keywords : Sleep apnea, obstructive; cardiovascular diseases; risk factors; exercise; logistic models; health surveys.

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