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vol.37 issue2MOUNTAIN WORSHIP IN THE PRE-INCA ANDES: THE CASE OF ÑAWINPUKYO (AYACUCHO, PERU) IN THE EARLY INTERMEDIATE PERIODGEOGLYPHS AND PREHISPANIC LLAMA CARAVAN TRAFFIC IN THE ATACAMA DESERT (NORTHERN CHILE) author indexsubject indexarticles search
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Chungará (Arica)

On-line version ISSN 0717-7356

Abstract

NUNEZ, Lautaro. THE NATURE OF VILLAGE EXPANSION DURING THE LATE FORMATIVE PERIOD IN THE ATACAMA BASIN . Chungará (Arica) [online]. 2005, vol.37, n.2, pp.165-193. ISSN 0717-7356.  http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-73562005000200006.

Horticulture in the foothill oases of the Atacama Basin began before 700 B.C. according to the chronostratigraphic record of maize, which first appeared during the Tilocalar Phase of the Early Formative Period (1400 - 400 B.C.). Extensive farming activities must have been consolidated during the phases following the Early Formative Period, that is, from about 0 to 500 A.D., as seen in complex, 14C-dated settlements in the foothill oases: Tulor-1 (380 B.C. - 200 A.D.) and Coyo-Aldea (660 - 995 A.D.). I propose that in order to access the herding production derived from the Tilocalar Phase, which was little adapted to the warm oases, during the Late Formative Period the inhabitants of the region controlled the plains of the salar, the intermediate canyons, and the high puna through a complementary transhumant regime. At this time, sociopolitical leadership of the system was situated in the oases of San Pedro de Atacama. The record of seven 14C-dated settlements in the extreme peripheries of the Atacama Basin, associated with narrow, essentially pastoral canyons (Puripica and Tulán), demonstrates an expansive process aimed at balancing farming and herding productivity. In this sense, I propose that the post-Tilocalar occupation of the grassland (forrajero) hinterland occurred through the foundation of villages that shared similarities in architecture, artifacts, environments, and chronologies, spreading from the nuclear community at San Pedro de Atacama

Keywords : San Pedro de Atacama oasis; Formative Period; village expansion; agropastoral complementarity.

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