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vol.42 número1LOS ESTUDIOS ANDINOS Y LA ETNOHISTORIA EN LA UNIVERSIDAD DE BUENOS AIRESDESDE LA PERSPECTIVA DE LA ISLA: GUERRA Y TRANSFORMACIÓN EN UN ARCHIPIÉLAGO VERTICAL ANDINO: MACHA (NORTE DE POTOSÍ, BOLIVIA) índice de autoresíndice de materiabúsqueda de artículos
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Chungará (Arica)

versión On-line ISSN 0717-7356

Resumen

LLAGOSTERA, Agustín. REVISITING THE LIMITS AND LIMITATIONS OF THE "VERTICAL ARCHIPELAGO ". Chungará (Arica) [online]. 2010, vol.42, n.1, pp.283-295. ISSN 0717-7356.  http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-73562010000100036.

The present work returns to the problem of the limits and limitations of the 'vertical archipelago', raised three decades ago by John V. Murra, and which still remains without a satisfactory solution. Rather than resolve the challenge left by Murra, / here offer a different approach to the archaeological information, which leads me to formulate a hypothesis that may guide the debate and search for answers within a wider context. Concentrating on the Western slopes of the Andes in the North of Chile, I propose that the model of the vertical archipelago, as defined by Murra, was consolidated only in the Late Intermediate Period. During the Middle Horizon, the need for vertical complementarity could have been resolved through the macro-system organized by Tiwanaku, a civilization that perfected the older "system of reticulated interaction " (Llagostera 2006), and did not depend on colonies for access to distant resources. But in the Late Intermediate Period, sociopolitical and environmental events combined to bring about a new form of organization in the Andean highlands and in the Western Valleys of the Pacific. In the latter, populations that had reached their sociocultural upper limit would have been restructured under mechanisms assimilable to those of 'duality'. Meanwhile the highland populations, afflicted by an intense drought, would have unleashed violent attacks against those living in the head-waters of the Western Valleys to get hold of their agricultural lands. Finally, the remnants of these pre-Andean populations (originally part of the valley dual organization) would have fallen into the hands of the altiplanic populations, becoming colonies ('islands') which consolidated a 'vertical archipelago structure' whose nuclei lay on the Altiplano. In this way were formed the southernmost archipelagoes of the Andean world: Caranga, Quillaca and Lipes.

Palabras clave : Pukaras (defensive sites); South Central Andes; Late Intermediate Period, ethnic archipelagoes; verticality ethnic conflicts; North Chilean archaeology.

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