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Revista chilena de obstetricia y ginecología

versión On-line ISSN 0717-7526

Resumen

PAVLOVIC B, Milenko  y  CARVAJAL C, Jorge. Hipoglicemiantes orales para el tratamiento de la diabetes mellitus gestacional: Revisión sistemática de la literatura. Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. [online]. 2013, vol.78, n.3, pp.167-178. ISSN 0717-7526.  http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-75262013000300002.

Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated to a higher maternal and perinatal risk. Usually GDM is controlled with diet, exercise and insulin. Oral hypoglycaemic agents (OHA) are an emergent therapy for the treatment of GDM. Objectives: Conduct a systematic review of all class I evidence available regarding the use of OHA for GDM treatment, and perform a metaanalysis of significant maternal and perinatal outcomes. Results: Ten studies accomplished inclusion criteria. Three studies compared metformin to insulin, four compared glyburide to insulin and three compared metformin to glyburide. Studies showed no significant differences in glycaemic control or perinatal complications, between metformin and insulin, between glyburide and insulin, or between metformin and glyburide. Our metaanalysis comparing OHA to insulin shows significantly lower fasting blood glucose (MD 1.74; 95% IC 0.38-3.10) and larger 2-hr postprandial glucose in the insulin group compared to OHA groups (MD -2.97; 95% IC -27.24-5.36). Our metaanalysis comparing shows a significantly lower incidence of large for gestational age in the metformin vs. gliburide group (OR 0.38; 95% IC 0.18-0.78). Failure of treatment was significantly lower using gliburide than metformin (27.6% vs. 38.5%, p<0.0001; 95% IC 1.21-1.60). Conclusion: OHA are a safe and effective treatment for GDM. We recommend the use of glyburide (glibenclamide) in GDM patients that fail to obtain glycemic control with diet and exercise, since glyburide does not crosses the placental barrier, has a lower rate of treatment failure and is equally affective as metformin.

Palabras clave : Gestational diabetes mellitus; oral hypoglycemic agents; metformin; glyburide; glibenclamide; insulin.

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