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Revista chilena de obstetricia y ginecología

On-line version ISSN 0717-7526

Abstract

FUENZALIDA C, Javiera  and  CARVAJAL C, Jorge A. Manejo de la embarazada con isoinmunización por anticuerpos irregulares. Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. [online]. 2014, vol.79, n.4, pp.315-322. ISSN 0717-7526.  http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-75262014000400011.

The fetomaternal erythrocyte isoimmunization is defined as the presence of maternal antibodies directed against antigens present in fetal red blood cells. Maternal antibodies can cross the placenta and cause hemolysis of fetal red blood cells causing hyperbilirubinemia and hemolytic anemia, known as perinatal hemolytic disease (PHD). The main cause of PHD is ABO incompatibility, followed by RhD isoimmunization. The latter has decreased its incidence since the widespread use of anti-D immunoglobulin. However, the red cell has more than 400 antigens; many of them (>50) can lead to isoimmunization and PHD. In this article, we review the evidence and propose an algorithm for the management and monitoring of pregnant women with irregular antibodies isoimmunization. In the isoimmunization by irregular antibodies, maternal antibody titers do not correlate with the severity of the disease. Anemia in PHD by anti-Kell is secondary to suppression of fetal erythroblastosis unlike other systems that produce hemolytic anemia. We suggest the screening of all patients in the prenatal control with blood group, Rh and indirect Coombs test. In the Rh (+) patients with positive indirect Coombs test, irregular antibodies should be identified. In case of immunization by irregular antibodies in risk of PHD, the women should be referred to a high-risk obstetrics where the appearance of fetal anemia should be seek by measuring systolic peak of middle cerebral artery. If anemia is detected full confirmation of diagnosis and treatment should be effected by cordocentesis.

Keywords : Isoimmunization; irregular antibodies; perinatal hemolytic disease.

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