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Revista chilena de obstetricia y ginecología

Print version ISSN 0048-766XOn-line version ISSN 0717-7526

Abstract

LOPEZ O., Paulina et al. Review of maternal and perinatal risks in times of COVID-19. Challenges for the role of Midwifery. Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. [online]. 2020, vol.85, suppl.1, pp.S131-S147. ISSN 0048-766X.  http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-75262020000700018.

Introduction and objective

A new disease, COVID-19, is dramatically affecting the world. Knowing the risks for the reproductive health is an imperative for the obstetric and gynecological practice. This research analyzes the maternal and perinatal risks associated with COVID-19, with the aim of identifying challenges that the disease poses to the practice of midwifery.

Methods

Narrative review. Scientific articles from primary sources indexed in Scielo, Pubmed, Scope, and WOS, are consulted by using the following search terms: “pregnancy” “vertical transmission” “maternal and perinatal health”, “maternal and perinatal risks” “breastfeeding”, COVID-19”, “Coronavirus”. Three selection phases were carried out. The topics of analysis were vertical transmission, maternal and perinatal risk, breastfeeding.

Results

In pregnant women severe forms of COVID-19 occur in the presence of chronic diseases. At the perinatal level, the biggest risk is premature delivery, generally for medical indications and by cesarean section. Although there is no evidence of vertical transmission, it cannot be ruled out either. Neonatal risks are related to transmission by proximity and restrictive measures that may affect breastfeeding and mother-child interaction.

Conclusions

COVID-19 brings several challenges to the practice of midwifery: implementation of methods to prevent infection of the pregnant woman and her close environment; adaptation of birth preparation in case of positivity; prevention of maternal stress and emotional distress from the beginning of pregnancy to postpartum; adequacy of care for the newborn; research in Latin America, and evaluation of new protocols.

Keywords : COVID-19; maternal and perinatal risk; pregnancy; lactation; midwife.

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