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International Journal of Morphology

On-line version ISSN 0717-9502


MERUANE, Manuel  and  ROJAS, Mariana. Skin and Appendages Development in Vertebrates. Int. J. Morphol. [online]. 2012, vol.30, n.4, pp.1422-1433. ISSN 0717-9502.

Skin and associated structures allow animals to survive in different ecological environments. The development of skin and appendages in different species has common patterns repeated. Of utmost importance is the epithelial-mesenchymal interaction as the initial controller development. The crucial event in the formation of appendages is the appearance of an ectodermal placode, which is associated with a condensation of dermal cells, expressing BMP and Sonic Hedgehog proteins and then give the way to each species appendages. In this review we describe the successive stages that take place in the formation of the dermis, epidermis and appendages, with emphasis on proteins that direct the process.

Keywords : Skin; Dermis; Epidermis; Appendages.

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