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International Journal of Morphology

On-line version ISSN 0717-9502

Abstract

BARBOSA-DA-SILVA, Sandra et al. Animal Models of Nutritional Induction of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Int. J. Morphol. [online]. 2014, vol.32, n.1, pp.279-293. ISSN 0717-9502.  http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-95022014000100046.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) is the most common chronic metabolic disease, affecting approximately 6% of the adult population in the Western world. This condition is a major cause of cardiovascular disease, blindness, renal failure, and amputations, with increasing prevalence worldwide. The inuence of obesity on type 2 diabetes risk is determined by the degree of obesity and by body fat localization, with insulin resistance (IR) being the main link between these metabolic diseases. Experimental studies have shown that dietary factors, and particularly lipids, are strongly positively associated with body mass (BM) gain; IR; and, consequently, type 2 diabetes. Similarly, excessive consumption of energy-dense carbohydrate-rich foods can trigger the onset of type 2 diabetes. Additionally, maternal dietary inadequacies at conception and/or during the gestational period have been proposed to lead to developmental programming of excessive BM gain and metabolic disturbances in offspring, such as abnormal glucose homeostasis, reduced whole-body insulin sensitivity, impaired beta-cell insulin secretion and changes in the structure of the pancreas. Metabolic disruption is strongly associated with deleterious effects on beta-cell development and function. However, alterations in the amount and quality of dietary fat can modify glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. In this way, certain oils have gained attention in experimental research for their beneficial effects. Olive oil, a source of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), got attention in the past for its capacity to prevent cardiovascular diseases. Nevertheless, it is currently known that this oil also improves insulin sensitivity and glycemic control. Canola oil, flaxseed oil and especially fish oil (rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) were first described as effective dietary nutrients against hypertriglyceridemia but now are known to have positive effects on glucose metabolism as well.

Keywords : Animal models; Nutritional induction; Metabolic disease; Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

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