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International Journal of Morphology

On-line version ISSN 0717-9502


AL-SHAYYAB, Mohammad H et al. The Mental Foramen II: Radiographic Study of the Superior-Inferior Position, Appearance and Accessory Foramina in Iraqi Population. Int. J. Morphol. [online]. 2016, vol.34, n.1, pp.310-319. ISSN 0717-9502.

Accurate information regarding the vertical location and appearance of the mental foramen, and the presence of accessory foramina, can have clinical significance, such as reducing complications that may occur during many oral surgical procedures involving the mental area. Geographic variations were reported in these variables. The aim was to evaluate the above-mentioned variables in an Iraqi sample. Five hundred eighteen panoramic radiographs of a random Iraqi sample (257 males, 261 females, average age= 46.5 years) were evaluated with regard to the above-mentioned variables, as well as the symmetry of the foramen regarding these variables. The area below the apices of mandibular premolars, and the continuous type were the most frequent vertical location and appearance of the mental foramen, respectively. Age advancement was found to be associated with an increase in the frequency of more inferior positioning and continuous appearance. The vertical position and appearance were asymmetrical in 16.2 % and 20.1 % of cases, respectively. Symmetry in the vertical location was statistically significant between sexes (P= 0.035), and young and old ages (P= 0.000). Symmetry in the appearance was found statistically significant (P= 0.025) only between the two age groups. Accessory foramina were recorded in 7.3 % of cases. The most common vertical location and appearance of the mental foramen on panoramic radiographs in this group are below the apices of mandibular premolars, and continuous type, respectively. This is in consistence with the findings of previous studies on other populations. The mental foramen usually has symmetrical vertical location and appearance. Accessory foramina are recorded in a percentage lower than that recently reported in some regional countries.

Keywords : Mental foramen; Panoramic radiographs; Geographic variation; Iraqi population.

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