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Idesia (Arica)

versión On-line ISSN 0718-3429

Resumen

CAMPOS ORTEGA, Humberto; DIAZ MUNOZ, Gonzalo  y  CAMPOS ORTEGA, Claudio. LLUTA AND SAN JOSÉ RIVERS SEDIMENTARY FLUVIAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE COASTAL AREA IN ARICA HARBOUR, CHILE.. Idesia [online]. 2007, vol.25, n.2, pp.37-48. ISSN 0718-3429.  http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-34292007000200005.

San José river bed in the north of Chile runs across Arica city providing water supplies in the middle and high lands of Azapa valley as a result of pluvial contributions. This river rises in the central mountain range or west border of the Andean High Plateau (JICA,1995). Its superior courses are narrow, incised and sinuous ditches which prevent soil and agriculture development.The ditch becomes wider in its middle course. San José River has a permanent flow but with small quantities only in its upper course, resource which can be used locally in order to develop subsistence farming agriculture. It is only in the summer months of the High Plateau winter, between December and March, that the river as a flood stream reaches its lower course and also the ocean.That is why it has been defined by Wetzel (1975) as ephimeral river. During the months of water surplus in the Andean Plateau occur some infiltrations which recharge the water tables and/or supply water springs in the inferior course of the river. On the other hand, the lower course of Lluta river at 10 kilometers north of Arica shows permanent east-west exoreic draining (Goldman & Home, 1994; Wetzel, 1975) and its basin of 174 kms long is classified as Pre-Andean, being its main tributaries Azufre river and Caracarani, Colpita and Socoroma gorges. As many of the main basins in the region, this one shows little or no seasonal rains. The Lluta river is characterized by its high borum (B) concentrations (Acquaconsult Cía Ltd. 1998). The B concentration in Lluta river is between 16 and 25 mg/L, being labelled as class 4 water according to the Secondary Quality Norm in Sea Water. In general, alluvia in both basins as torrential events of relative magnitude in volume and effect produce erosion in both beds, adjacent lands, and farming soil which in turn causes damage to crops, productive soil, and irrigation systems.These non- periodic alluvia also destroy roads, railways, tap water systems, damaging Arica city and other rural human settlements; they also contribute to block the commercial port, spoiling beaches in the shoreline with settling and suspended particulate matters (STSS) of continental origin. The purpose of this research is to quantify the STSS which is carried to the shoreline of Arica's harbour during summer alluvial events. The sampling methodology and STSS analysis followed the protocols indicated in APHA,AWWA,WPCF. NORM METHODS for tap and residual waters analysis. Díaz de Santos Ed., S.A. (1992). Results coincide with what it was observed some years ago when one of the docks in the Chinchorro area became blocked. The ST report at the Lluta river mouth in February 2005 was 1.705,47 t/day whereas San José river showed a 72.22 t/day during the highest flow days. The fluvial particulate matter greatly damages the city tourism preventing residents and tourist to visit the noth area beaches. These sediments cause the seaport dock become blocked. The Lluta river provides more seasonal sediments than San Jose river, nevertheless the latter causes more damage in public infrastructure and tourism.

Palabras clave : Bed; alluvial; particled; sedimentable; ionic power.

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