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International journal of odontostomatology

versión On-line ISSN 0718-381X


PASTRIAN-SOTO, Gabriel. Genetic and Molecular Basis of COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) Mechanisms of Pathogenesis and Imnune. Int. J. Odontostomat. [online]. 2020, vol.14, n.3, pp.331-337. ISSN 0718-381X.

In late December 2019, a new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) was identified as a causative agent of a new respiratory disease called COVID-19 by WHO. Its symptoms include fever, dry cough, and shortness of breath. Generally, these symptoms are mild, although, can be fatal in older adults and patients with comorbidities. A bibliographic search was carried out in Pubmed and Clinical Key. 22 articles were selected according to inclusion criteria. SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the genus of Betacoronaviruses and has genomic similarities to SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. SARS-CoV-2 virion is made up of a nucleocapsid and external envelope composed of main structural and accesory proteins. Its genetic is a positive sense single stranded RNA in which important proteins are encoded for their transcription and replication. The mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 infection begins with the binding of the virion to (ACE2) receptor of the host cell and subsequent entry by endocytosis. This RNA genome is released into cytoplasm and the necessary proteins for the production of structural proteins and the replication of genetic material are transcribed and translated. Then, the replicated RNA associates with the nucleocapsid and assembles together with the structural proteins to form the viral particles that will be released from the infected cell. The immune system faces viral infection through the recognition of molecular patterns associated with pathogens (PAMPs) by innate immunity and the action of T cells and B cells by humoral immunity. Knowledge of the genetic and molecular basis of SARS-CoV-2 allows us to visualize the possibility of establishing pharmacological or vaccine treatments to control and reduce the pathogenic effects of the disease.

Palabras clave : COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Genetic; Pathogenesis; Inmune response.

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