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Revista chilena de cirugía

versión On-line ISSN 0718-4026

Resumen

CARRILLO G., Katya; ABEDRAPO M., Mario  y  AZOLAS M., Rodrigo. Surgical techiniques for sphincter preservation y low rectal cancer: historical review and current status. Rev Chil Cir [online]. 2018, vol.70, n.2, pp.178-184. ISSN 0718-4026.  http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/s0718-40262018000200178.

After multiple attempts to achieve appropriate results in the surgical resection for rectal cancer, Sir William Ernest Miles develops the technique that would carry his name, and is, without modifications, currently referred as abdominoperineal resection. This technique, considered gold standard for rectal tumors for many years, has been gradually replaced by sphincter preserving surgery. Low anterior resection allowed sphincter-preservation in patients with low rectal tumors within 5 cm from the anal verge. Technical developments (double stapling technique), better understanding of oncological principles (total mesorectal excision) and the introduction of neoadyuvant treatment with chemoradiotherapy, allowed further lowering of the adequate distal resection margin and to carry out ultralow colorectal and coloanal anastomoses. Ultralow intersphincteric resection removes the internal anal sphincter (partial, subtotal or total resection) avoiding permanent colostomy in a subset of patients. This technique has been broadly studied with published oncological outcomes that are better or similar to those of abdominoperineal resection. Currently, evaluation of response after neoadyuvant therapy has led some working groups to propose organ preservation; either by strict follow up for complete clinical response, or by local excision techniques for incomplete clinical response.

Palabras clave : rectal cancer; surgery; sphincter-preservation.

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