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Polis (Santiago)

versión On-line ISSN 0718-6568


BELLO ARELLANO, Daniel. State/nation relationship, economic development modeland party system in Chile: brief historical review as an attempt to understand a change of time. Polis [online]. 2012, vol.11, n.31, pp.39-55. ISSN 0718-6568.

This article reviews the stages through which the Chilean Statemoved from the 1930s onward, particularly concerning the transformations in therole it played managing the national economy, and the impact these changes had inthe link between political parties and society or, in a broader sense, between Stateand nation. We observe two clearly defined stages. The first characterized by theconstitution of the State as a key element of the economic model development and an important organizer of society; task -this last one- propitiated by the mediatingaction of political parties, which established deep bonds with different socialorganizations, enabling the channelling of demands and distribution of benefits.The second stage, which began with the breakdown of democracy in 1973, showsthe State’s withdrawal and the imposition of the market as the focal point of theeconomic model as well as the main mechanism behind the distribution of goodsand services. The return to democracy -in 1990- was characterized by this "marketcentric" reality and by the new institutional structure conceived during the militarydictatorship. This shaped the party system reorganization and forced a shift ininteraction strategies between political parties and society, prioritizing politicalmarketing and the use of new mass media over a direct relationship with the nowdeflated social organizations. This historical review may help understand the currentrepresentation and participation crisis seen today in Chile.

Palabras clave : State/nation; economic development model; political parties; party system; Chile.

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