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Journal of soil science and plant nutrition

versión On-line ISSN 0718-9516

Resumen

MEDINA, J et al. Arbuscular mycorrhizal status of pioneer plants from the mouth of lake Budi, Araucanía Region, Chile. J. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. [online]. 2015, vol.15, n.1, pp.142-152.  Epub 24-Feb-2014. ISSN 0718-9516.  http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-95162015005000012.

Abstract Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have an important role on the ecosystem stability promoting water and nutrient acquisition by plants and allowing their growth under stress conditions including drought and salinity. This study aimed at describing the colonization of native AMF associated to pioneer plant species growing at the mouth of lake Budi, which receive seasonally marine water. For this, root samples and rhizosphere substrate of Polygonum maritimum, Carpobrotus chilensis, Ambrosia chamissonis, Ammophyla arenaria were collected and analyzed. Mycorrhizal root colonization, spore and hyphal density, and some soil chemical properties (pH, conductivity, organic matter -OM-, and microbial activity) were determined. Results showed that A. Arenaria presented the highest root colonization (53%), mycelium (10 m g-1) and AMF spores (300 spores in 100g of substrate) densities, which were highly correlated with an elevated OM content (1.64%; r=0.53, r=0.48 y r=0.87, respectively) and soil microbial activity (3.57 µg fluoresce in g-1 h-1; r=0.89 r=0.76 and r=0.53, respectively). On the other hand, a low AMF species richness was found in the rhizospheric soils of all four evaluated plants, finding a total of five AMF species. Nevertheless, one of these corresponds to a new specie (Corymbiglomus pacificum), which was associated to A. arenaria. Our results suggest an important role of AMF associated to pioneer plants in saline ecosystems, especially enhancing the establishment of A. arenaria and Amb. chamissonis, which could promote a further nurse effect that allow the establishment of other plant species. AM fungi could be considered as a biotechnological tool since they could be used for stabilization of coastal ecosystems, and in soils under saline or hydric limitations.

Palabras clave : Rhizosphere microorganisms; nutrients; AMF communities; salinity.

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