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Journal of soil science and plant nutrition

versión On-line ISSN 0718-9516

Resumen

VIOLANTE, A  y  CAPORALE, A.G. Biogeochemical processes at soil-root interface. J. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. [online]. 2015, vol.15, n.2, pp.422-448.  Epub 30-Abr-2015. ISSN 0718-9516.  http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-95162015005000038.

Rhizosphere is a microsite where interactions among roots, microorganisms, soil constituents (minerals and organic matter), and soil solution take place. Biomolecules produced by plants and microorganisms and soil organic substances are involved in many biogeochemical processes at soil-root interface such as: a) weathering of clay minerals and release of Al and Fe, b) formation of nanoprecipitates and organo-mineral complexes, c) sorption/desorption of cations and anions on/from soil colloids and d) bioavailability of nutrients and pollutants. Many exudates form strong complexes with Fe and Al ions, retard or inhibit their hydrolytic reactions and promote the formation of noncrystalline or short-range ordered Al and Fe nanoprecipitates. The so-called iron plaques, present on many wetland plant roots, are Fe(III)-oxyhydroxides (mainly ferrihydrite). These precipitates may interact with biopolymers (proteins, polysaccharides, DNA, RNA and so on), phyllosilicates, soil organic substances as well as microorganisms forming organo-mineral complexes. Root exudates play a vital role on the sorption/desorption of nutrients and pollutants at soil-root interface. The processes, which affect the sorption of cations and anions on sorbents present in the rhizosphere are particularly complex, being sorption of cations quite different from that of anions. Root exudates usually inhibit the sorption of anions, but may promote or inhibit the sorption of cations. They may desorb, at least partially, nutrients and pollutants previously sorbed on soil components, promoting their bioavailability for plants and microorganisms. Finally, some plants release chelating organic ligands able to complex metals (e.g. Al) which become less toxic. Many factors control these processes, for example; pH, nature and concentration of the biomolecules present in the rhizosphere, nature of sorbent and sorbate, reaction time.

Palabras clave : Soil-root interface; nanoprecipitates; organomineral complexes; sorption/desorption; nutrients; pollutants.

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