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Revista clínica de periodoncia, implantología y rehabilitación oral

On-line version ISSN 0719-0107

Abstract

GOMEZ ARCILA, Verónica et al. Nickel in oral cavity of individuals with gingival overgrowth induced by orthodontic treatment. Rev. Clin. Periodoncia Implantol. Rehabil. Oral [online]. 2014, vol.7, n.3, pp.136-141. ISSN 0719-0107.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.piro.2014.06.002.

Gingival overgrowth is an oral condition generated by the use of fixed orthodontic appliances. It was initially described as a product of the allergic response of the host to Nickel, and recent studies showed that this metal induces fibroblast proliferation. However, the degree of bioaccumulation of this metal in the oral cavity is unknown. The aim of this study was to quantify the concentrations of nickel in samples of saliva, dental plaque, and gingiva of individuals with fixed orthodontic appliances with and without gingival overgrowth. The sample size was established according to historical trends, evaluating 24 individuals with active orthodontic treatment, which were classified in two groups: 12 with gingival overgrowth (Group A) and 12 without gingival overgrowth (Group B). Samples of gingival, stimulated saliva and dental plaque were obtained from each participant. Once the sample were processed, nickel concentrations were measured in [mg/L] by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Thermo Scientific. Atomic absorption spectrometer iCE 3000, UK). Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS v20. The levels of Nickel in samples of stimulated saliva, dental plaque and gingiva were compared between individuals in group A and group B. There were significantly higher levels of nickel in gingiva samples in group A (mean = 0.61 mg/L vs. 0.36 mg/L, P = .001). However, no statistical difference was observed when comparing the concentrations of nickel in saliva between groups A and B (mean = 0.502 mg/L vs. 0.473 mg/L, P = .178, respectively). The use of fixed orthodontic appliances leads to different levels of bioaccumulation of nickel in gingiva when comparing both groups. High concentrations of this metal are probably associated with the origin of gingival overgrowth. Further studies are required to establish causation.

Keywords : Dental plaque; Gingiva; Saliva; Gingival overgrowth; Atomic spectrophotometry.

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