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Andes pediatrica

versión On-line ISSN 2452-6053


CASTRO-MORAGA, María Eugenia et al. Drug interactions in HIV-infected children undergoing treatment with antiretrovirals. Andes pediatr. [online]. In press. .  Epub 24-Feb-2021. ISSN 2452-6053.


Drug interactions are undesirable events observed in clinical practice. In patients with HIV infection on antiretroviral therapy (ART), it is particularly important to bear in mind that many drugs com monly used in pediatrics can cause such interactions.


to report a case of drug interaction between an antiretroviral drug (lopinavir/ritonavir) and inhaled corticosteroid in a child with HIV infection, and to review more frequent drug interactions in children on ART.

Clinical Case:

5-year- old male with history of stage N1 vertical transmitted HIV infection (1994 CDC classification), on ART from 8 months of age with zidovudine, lamivudine, and lopinavir/ritonavir, with successful vi- rological and immunological outcome. Due to symptoms of allergic rhinitis (congestion, itchy nose, and nocturnal snoring) treatment with intranasal fluticasone was started. After 1 month of treatment, he developed cushingoid facies, weight gain, mixed dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, morning basal cortisol levels < 1 µg/dL, and Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) < 2 pg/ml, presenting ACTH stimulation test compatible with central adrenal insufficiency, attributed to a drug interaction with lopinavir/ritonavir due to known interaction. He started hydrocortisone replacement treatment, re covering hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function after 18 months.


Knowledge of this and other drug interactions between ART and drugs commonly used in pediatrics is essential for the comprehensive management of patients with HIV infection, especially in the prevention of unwanted adverse effects.

Palabras clave : Pharmacological Interactions; Antiretroviral Therapy; Fluticasone; Ritonavir; Lopinavir/Ritonavir; Cushing; Adrenal Insufficiency.

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