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Revista chilena de pediatría

versión impresa ISSN 0370-4106

Rev. chil. pediatr. vol.88 no.2 Santiago abr. 2017

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rchipe.2016.08.004 

Original article

 

Risk factors associated with postoperative acute renal failure in pediatric patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass surgery

Factores de riesgo asociados a insuficiencia renal aguda postoperatoria en niños intervenidos de cirugía cardíaca

 

Elsa Nohemí Reyes-Flandesa, Alejandro Herrera-Landerob, Pascual Bobadilla-Gonzáleza, Juan Carlos Núñez-Enríquezc

aServicio de Terapia Intensiva, Hospital de Pediatría Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Ciudad de México, México
bHospital de Traumatología y Ortopedia “Lomas Verdes”, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Estado de México, México
cUnidad de Investigación Médica en Epidemiología Clínica, Hospital de Pediatría, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Ciudad de México, México

Correspondencia a:


Introduction: Acute renal failure (ARF) is a complication associated with cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) with an impact on morbidity and mortality. Objective: To identify risk factors associated with postoperative IRA according to pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-Stage Renal Disease scale in children undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB. Patients and Method: A nested case-control study was conducted. We included children under 16 years of age attended postoperative for CBP in a pediatric intensive care unit over a period of 18 months. The cases were those who developed ARF according to the classification pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-Stage Renal Disease scale during their stay in the pediatric intensive care unit. Controls were those who did not develop this complication. Logistic regression analysis was performed and adjusted odds ratio (OR) and confidence intervals at 95% (95% CI) were calculated. Results: 91 patients (31 cases and 60 controls) with a median age of 20 months and predominance of males (53.8%) were analyzed. Independent risk factors for ARF were the intraoperative lactate level > 6 mmol/l (OR = 4.91; 95% CI 1.26-19.05; p = .02) and cyanotic heart disease (OR = 3.62; 95% CI 1.11-11.63; p = .03). Conclusions: This study identified that pediatric patients with lactate levels >6 mmol/l during CPB and those with cyanotic congenital heart disease are a subgroup of high risk to develop ARF after heart surgery and should be closely monitored to prevent, detect and/or treat this complication timely manner.

Keywords: Acute kidney injury; Cardiopulmonary bypass; Congenital heart defects; Children


 

Introduction

Congenital heart disease is a group of diseases characterized by the presence of structural abnormalities of the heart of large intrathoracic vessels from the embryonic period and it represent the most common congenital malformations in newborns with a prevalence that oscillates around 1%1,2.

Advances in the perioperative management of these heart diseases have resulted in a significant decrease in mortality even for the most severe heart defects. However, postoperative morbidity of these patients remains high3.

Acute renal failure (ARF) is a complication that can occur between 5% and 46% of pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery and it is associated with longer stays in intensive care, as well as increased risk of nosocomial infections and high mortality (27-70%) postsurgical4-9.

Studies that have used different methods to classify ARF have been described as risk factors associated with ARF to patients younger than one year of age, with history of kidney damage, time of cardiopulmonary bypass, elevated serum lactate levels during the immediate postoperative period, cyanogenic heart disease and metabolic acidosis4,10–14.

Recently, the Pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-Stage Renal Disease scale (pRIFLE) has been proposed as an easy-to-apply and highly sensitive tool for identifying and staging the severity of ARF in children (Table 1)13-17.

Cardiopulmonary bypass time (CBC) has been described as an independent risk factor for postoperative ARF in children undergoing cardiac surgery18,19. The underlying mechanism is multifactorial and it is related to renal hypoperfusion, a combination of ischemia-reperfusion phenomena, pulsatile flow loss and severe systemic inflammatory response caused by CPB20.

There are few studies that have described the risk factors associated with ARF assessed by pRIFLE in the subgroup of high risk children to develop such complication as are those patients undergoing cardiac surgery requiring support with CPB12,15,21.

The aim of the present study was to identify the risk factors associated with postsurgical ARF according to the pRIFLE scale in children undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB.

Patients and Methods

A nested case-control study was conducted. We included in the cohort all patients younger than 16 years who were admitted after being operated on cardiac surgery that required CPB during the period from January 1, 2014 to July 1, 2015 in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) of the Pediatric Hospital Siglo XXI, which is a unit with a high level of resolution capacity in Mexico City. The cases were those patients who developed some degree of ARF according to the pRIFLE scale (Tabla 1)13; whereas, the controls corresponded to those patients who did not develop it. No patient was excluded.

Table 1. Pediatric-modified RIFL E (pRIFLE) criteria. (13)

The variables studied were: gender, age at surgery < 1 year (yes/no), type of cardiopathy (cyanogenic/acyanogenic), maximum serum lactate level during CPB ≥ 6 mmol/l, metabolic acidosis during CPB (mild: pH 7.34 - 7.30, moderate: pH 7.29-7.21, severe: pH < 7.2), time of CPB ≥ 140min (yes/no), low cardiac output syndrome (uresis < 0.5 ml/kg/h, central venous saturation < 60% and/or lactate > 3 mmol/l) (yes/no) and aortic clamping (yes/no). The frequency of mortality of patients during their stay in the PICU was determined.

Statistical analysis was performed using the statistical program SPSS version 21. A descriptive analysis of the variables of interest was performed by calculating frequencies and percentages for categorical variables. Quantitative variables distribution was determined with the Shapiro-Wilk test considering as non-parametric distribution those variables that resulted in a p-value lower than 0.05; For those who resulted with nonparametric distribution were calculated medians and ranges; For those with parametric distribution, means and standard deviations were determined. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. Subsequently, an unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed, where it was adjusted for age, gender and CPB time longer than 140 min. The low expenditure syndrome and the aortic clamping time, although they had a p-value lower than 0.05, could not be included in the final logistic regression analysis in order to avoid the homoscedasticity phenomenon since a correlation greater than 30% was observed in the correlation matrix analysis.

The protocol was approved by the Local Commi­ttee on Ethics and Health Research with the number: 2015-3603-66.

Results

During the study period, 321 cardiac surgery patients were admitted, who entered for post-surgical care in the PICU. From these, a total of 91 patients had been operated for cardiac surgery with CPB, being included in the present analysis (Figure 1). Cyanogenic heart disease accounted for 54.9% and 53.8% (n = 49) were males. The median age was 20 months, being a 26.4% younger than one year.

Figure 1. Flow chart of study participants selection.

Thirty-one patients (34%) developed ARF according to the pRIFLE scale and they were included in the case group, while 60 patients who did not develop this complication during their stay in PICUs formed the control group. Regarding the severity of ARF by pRIFLE, fourteen patients had kidney injury and seventeen presented a failure, starting this complication during the first 72 hours after surgery.

There were no statistically significant differences between the case group and the control group in terms of gender (p = 0.45) and age (p = 0.41), but for the length of stay in intensive care, which was higher in the group of cases (median 10 days, range: 2-33) compared to the control group (median 4 days, range: 1-22) (p < 0.001).

Table 2 shows the results of the bivariate analysis between the different risk factors studied for the development of postsurgical ARF and where it was observed that cyanogenic heart disease, a maximum serum lactate level during CPB greater than 6 mmol/l, metabolic acidosis and a CPB time longer than 140 min had an OR greater than 2.

Table 2. Clinical characteristics of patients included in the study according to the development of acute renal failure during their stay at intensive care unit after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass

Later, in the logistic regression analysis adjusted by gender, patient age and CPB time longer than 140 min, two independent risk factors associated with ARF development in the studied population were identified: cyanogenic heart disease (p = 0.03), and moderate-severe degree of hyperlactatemia (p = 0.02) (Table 3).

Table 3. Logistic regression analysis to identify independent risk factors associated with acute renal failure after pediatric cardiac surgery

Eight patients who developed ARF died during their stay in the PICU. None of the patients in the control group died (Figure 2). There was no difference in gender (p = 0.81) compared to patients who did not die. Seven patients had cyanogenic heart disease, two had a CPB time ≥ 140 min, four had a peak serum lactate level during CPB ≥ 6 mmol / l (p = 0.04). Their total was between 4 months and 4 years of age (median: 13.5 months), which had developed low cardiac output syndrome and had a prolonged aortic clamping time (longer than 25 min). Regarding the pRIFLE classification, six patients had been identified with failure (F). The direct causes of death according to that reported in death certificates were septic shock (n = 4), cardiogenic shock (n = 2) and multiple organ dysfunction (n = 2).

Figure 2. Kaplan Meier survival analysis for the duration of stay at the intensive care unit bypass according to the development of renal injury/failure by using the pRIFLE scale after pediatric cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary.

Discussion

The frequency of IRF measured by pRIFLE observed in the present study (34%) in pediatric heart surgery patients with CPB was high considering the frequency reported by Skippen (11%), where the frequency of ARF was determined based on the baseline serum creatinine or that reported by Setti (11.29%) using the guidelines developed by the Acute Kidney Injury Network5,19. However, it is similar to that reported by Zappitelli et al. (35.9%) in which the pRIFLE scale was used and who had studied a total of 390 patients, of whom 337 had been operated with CPB21.

Cardiac surgery with CPB generates a state of systemic inflammatory response, hypoflow with loss of renal autoregulation, among other effects, all related in some way to a greater kidney damage. In this regard, it has been reported in pediatric patients that the longer the exposure to CPB, the greater the risk of postoperative ARF19,22-24. In our study, CPB time was longer than 140 minutes, a pH < 7.29, a serum lactate level > 6 mmol/l during CPB and the low-expenditure syndrome, similar to those previously reported in other studies research19,25-27. Elevated lactate levels translate tissue hypoperfusion28. Complex cardiac lesions, increased cardiopulmonary bypass time, and lower patient age are associated with a higher lactate level reflecting the magnitude of tissue hypoperfusion status during CPB26.

On the other hand, cyanogenic cardiopathies were an independent risk factor for ARF, which agrees with Dittrich (2000) and Ruf (2015) who have indicated that patients with this type of heart disease may develop glomerular and tubular damage post-surgery that may even be exacerbated by poorly hydrated patients29,30.

It should be noted that none of the patients that we analyzed had a history of ARF, but we do not know if any had glomerular lesions secondary to cyanosis, since hypoxia, low compliance and tubular ischemia during reperfusion have been reported in this group and overheating during CPB. For this reason, it would be advisable that the pre-surgery evaluation include determination of levels of proteinuria and albuminuria, in order to detect those that require a perioperative surveillance and care that is narrower to prevent and/or detect postoperative ARF29.

In our study, we also observed that patients who developed ARF had a longer intensive care stay and higher mortality. Among the patients who died, 50% had sepsis, which has been described as frequent comorbidity and increases the risk of dying in children who develop postoperative ARF31. This highlights the need to implement preventive measures for postoperative infection in these children.

As limitations in our study, we must consider its retrospective nature, so that the absence of bias cannot be guaranteed. However, our study provides an overview of this postoperative complication in children undergoing cardiac surgery who required CPB and gives guidelines for the design of new studies, such as: (1) Prospective studies aiming to reduce risk by modifying susceptible variables (time of cardiopulmonary bypass and/or time of aortic clamping); (2) cost-benefit evaluation studies on implementation of early diagnostic tools, and (3) studies that investigate the importance of a patient with risk factors for postoperative ARF, being withdrawn from the operating room with a dialysis catheter, reducing the risk of a second surgical procedure and early initiation of kidney function replacement therapy.

Conclusions

ARF is a frequent complication in pediatric patients exposed to cardiac surgery with CPB treated in a PICU. The present study allowed the identification of some independent risk factors associated with the development of postsurgical ARF such as having presented maximum lactate levels during CPB > 6 mmol / l and those patients with cyanogenic congenital heart disease, which should be monitored in a special way for the purpose of prevent, detect and/or treat in a timely manner said complication.

 

References

1. Mitchell SC, Korones SB, Berendes HW. Congenital heart disease in 56,109 births. Incidence and natural history. Circulation. 1971;43(3):323-32.

2. Tennant PW, Pearce MS, Bythell M, Rankin J. 20-year survival of children born with congenital anomalies: a population-based study. Lancet. 2010;375(9715):649-56.

3. Santiago MJ, López-Herce J, Urbano J, et al. Evolución y factores de riesgo de mortalidad en niños sometidos a cirugía cardiaca que requieren técnicas de depuración extrarrenal continua. Rev Esp Cardiol. 2012;65:795-800.

4. Picca S, Principato F, Mazzera E, et al.
Risks of acute renal failure after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery in children: a retrospective 10-year case-control study. Br J Anaesth. 1991;67(5):591-4.

5. Skippen PW, Krahn GE. Acute renal failure in children undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. Crit Care Resusc. 2005;7:286-91.

6. Kist-van Holthe tot Echten JE, Goedvolk CA, Doornaar MB, et al. Acute renal insufficiency and renal replacement therapy after pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Pediatr Cardiol. 2001;22(4):321-6.

7. Dennen P, Altmann C, Kaufman J, et al. Urine interleukin-6 is an early biomarker of acute kidney injury in children undergoing cardiac surgery. Crit Care. 2010;14(5):R181.

8. Askenazi DJ, Bunchman TE. Pediatric acute kidney injury: the use of the RIFLE criteria. Kidney Int 2007;71:963-4.

9. Akcan-Arikan A, Zappitelli M, Loftis LL, Washburn KK, Jefferson LS, Goldstein SL. Modified RIFLE criteria in critically ill children with acute kidney injury. Kidney Int 2007;71:1028-35.

10. Li S, Krawczeski CD, Zappitelli M, et al. Incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of acute kidney injury after pediatric cardiac surgery: a prospective multicenter study. Crit Care Med. 2011;39(6):1493-9.

11. Rigden SP, Barratt TM, Dillon MJ, et al. Acute renal failure complicating cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Arch Dis Child. 1982;57:425-30.

12. Gil-Ruiz Gil-Esparza MA, Alcaraz Romero AJ, Romero Otero A, et al. Prognostic relevance of early AKI according to pRIFLE criteria in children undergoing cardiac surgery. Pediatr Nephrol. 2014;29(7):1265-72.

13. Akcan-Arikan A, Zappitelli M, Loftis LL, et al. Modified RIFLE criteria in critically ill children with acute kidney injury. Kidney Int 2007;71:1028-35.

14. Li S, Krawczeski CD, Zappitelli M, et al. Incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of acute kidney injury after pediatric cardiac surgery-a prospective multicenter study. Crit Care Med 2011; 39(6):1493-9.

15. Ricci Z, Di Nardo M, Iacoella C, Netto R, Picca S, Cogo P. Pediatric RIFLE for acute kidney injury diagnosis and prognosis for children undergoing cardiac surgery: a single-center prospective observational study. Pediatr Cardiol. 2013;34(6):1404-8.

16. Lex DJ, Tóth R, Cserép Z, et al. A comparison of the systems for the identification of postoperative acute kidney injury in pediatric cardiac patients. Ann Thorac Surg. 2014;97(1):202-10.

17. Washburn KK, Zappitelli M, Arikan AA, et al. Urinary interleukin-18 is an acute kidney injury biomarker in critically ill children. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2008;23(2):566-72.

18. Manrique A, Jooste EH, Kuch BA, et al.
The association of renal dysfunction and the use of aprotinin in patients undergoing congenital cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass. Anesth Analg. 2009;109(1):45-52.

19. Sethi SK, Goyal D, Yadav DK, et al. Predictors of acute kidney injury post-cardiopulmonary bypass in children. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2011;15(4):529-34.

20. Salis S, Mazzanti VV, Merli G, et al. Cardiopulmonary bypass duration is an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2008;22(6):814-22.

21. Zappitelli M, Bernier PL, Saczkowski RS, et al. A small post-operative rise in serum creatinine predicts acute kidney injury in children undergoing cardiac surgery. Kidney Int. 2009;76(8):885-92.

22. Chiravuri SD, Riegger LQ, Christensen R,
et al. Factors associated with acute kidney injury or failure in children undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass: a case-controlled study. Paediatr Anaesth. 2011;21(8):880-6.

23. Baskin E, Gulleroglu KS, Saygili A, et al.
Peritoneal dialysis requiriments followig open Heart surgery in children with congenital heart disease. Ren Fail. 2010;32(7):784-7.

24. Sirvinskas E, Andrejaitiene A, Raliene L, et al. Cardiopulmonary bypass managenment and acute renal failure: risk factors and prognosis. Perfussion. 2008;23(6): 323-7.

25. Morimatsu H, Toda Y, Egi M, et al. Acid-base variables in patients with acude kidney injury requiring peritoneal dialysis in the pediatric cardiac care unit. J Anesth. 2009;23(3):334-40.

26. Maarslet L, Moller MB, Dall R, et al. Lactate levels predict mortality and need for peritoneal dialysis in children undergoing congenital heart surgery. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2012;56(4):459-64.

27. Aydin SI, Seiden HS, Blaufox AD, et al. Acute kidney injury after surgery for congenital heart disease. Ann Thorac Surg. 2012;94(5):1589-95.

28. Ladha S, Kapoor PM, Singh SP, et al. The role of blood lactate clearance as a predictor of mortality in children undergoing surgery for tetralogy of Fallot. Ann Card Anaesth.2016;19(2):217-24.

29. Dittrich S, Kurschat K, Dähnert I, et al. Renal function after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery in cyanotic congenital heart disease. Int J Cardiol. 2000;73(2):173-9.

30. Ruf B, Bonelli V, Balling G, et al. Intraoperative renal near-infrared spectroscopy indicates developing acute kidney injury in infants undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass: a case control study. Crit Care. 2015;19:27.

31. Loza R, Estremadoyro L, Loza C, et al. Factors associated with mortality in acute renal failure in children. Pediatr Nephrol 2006;21:106-9.

___________________

Received: 26-5-2016; Accepted: 1-8-2016

Ethical Responsibilities

Human Beings and animals protection: Disclosure the authors state that the procedures were followed according to the Declaration of Helsinki and the World Medical Association regarding human experimentation developed for the medical community.

Data confidentiality: The authors state that they have followed the protocols of their Center and Local regulations on the publication of patient data.

Rights to privacy and informed consent: The authors have obtained the informed consent of the patients and/or subjects referred to in the article. This document is in the possession of the correspondence author.

Financial Disclosure

Authors state that no economic support has been associated with the present study.

Conflicts of Interest

Authors state that any conflict of interest exists regards the present study.

Correspondencia a:

Juan Carlos Núñez-Enríquez

jcarlos_nu@hotmail.com

1. Mitchell SC, Korones SB, Berendes HW. Congenital heart disease in 56,109 births. Incidence and natural history. Circulation. 1971;43(3):323-32.         [ Links ]

2. Tennant PW, Pearce MS, Bythell M, Rankin J. 20-year survival of children born with congenital anomalies: a population-based study. Lancet. 2010;375(9715):649-56.         [ Links ]

3. Santiago MJ, López-Herce J, Urbano J, et al. Evolución y factores de riesgo de mortalidad en niños sometidos a cirugía cardiaca que requieren técnicas de depuración extrarrenal continua. Rev Esp Cardiol. 2012;65:795-800.         [ Links ]

4. Picca S, Principato F, Mazzera E, et al. Risks of acute renal failure after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery in children: a retrospective 10-year case-control study. Br J Anaesth. 1991;67(5):591-4.         [ Links ]

5. Skippen PW, Krahn GE. Acute renal failure in children undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. Crit Care Resusc. 2005;7:286-91.         [ Links ]

6. Kist-van Holthe tot Echten JE, Goedvolk CA, Doornaar MB, et al. Acute renal insufficiency and renal replacement therapy after pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Pediatr Cardiol. 2001;22(4):321-6.         [ Links ]

7. Dennen P, Altmann C, Kaufman J, et al. Urine interleukin-6 is an early biomarker of acute kidney injury in children undergoing cardiac surgery. Crit Care. 2010;14(5):R181.         [ Links ]

8. Askenazi DJ, Bunchman TE. Pediatric acute kidney injury: the use of the RIFLE criteria. Kidney Int 2007;71:963-4.         [ Links ]

9. Akcan-Arikan A, Zappitelli M, Loftis LL, Washburn KK, Jefferson LS, Goldstein SL. Modified RIFLE criteria in critically ill children with acute kidney injury. Kidney Int 2007;71:1028-35.         [ Links ]

10. Li S, Krawczeski CD, Zappitelli M, et al. Incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of acute kidney injury after pediatric cardiac surgery: a prospective multicenter study. Crit Care Med. 2011;39(6):1493-9.         [ Links ]

11. Rigden SP, Barratt TM, Dillon MJ, et al. Acute renal failure complicating cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Arch Dis Child. 1982;57:425-30.         [ Links ]

12. Gil-Ruiz Gil-Esparza MA, Alcaraz Romero AJ, Romero Otero A, et al. Prognostic relevance of early AKI according to pRIFLE criteria in children undergoing cardiac surgery. Pediatr Nephrol. 2014;29(7):1265-72.         [ Links ]

13. Akcan-Arikan A, Zappitelli M, Loftis LL, et al. Modified RIFLE criteria in critically ill children with acute kidney injury. Kidney Int 2007;71:1028-35.         [ Links ]

14. Li S, Krawczeski CD, Zappitelli M, et al. Incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of acute kidney injury after pediatric cardiac surgery-a prospective multicenter study. Crit Care Med 2011; 39(6):1493-9.         [ Links ]

15. Ricci Z, Di Nardo M, Iacoella C, Netto R, Picca S, Cogo P. Pediatric RIFLE for acute kidney injury diagnosis and prognosis for children undergoing cardiac surgery: a single-center prospective observational study. Pediatr Cardiol. 2013;34(6):1404-8.         [ Links ]

16. Lex DJ, Tóth R, Cserép Z, et al. A comparison of the systems for the identification of postoperative acute kidney injury in pediatric cardiac patients. Ann Thorac Surg. 2014;97(1):202-10.         [ Links ]

17. Washburn KK, Zappitelli M, Arikan AA, et al. Urinary interleukin-18 is an acute kidney injury biomarker in critically ill children. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2008;23(2):566-72.         [ Links ]

18. Manrique A, Jooste EH, Kuch BA, et al. The association of renal dysfunction and the use of aprotinin in patients undergoing congenital cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass. Anesth Analg. 2009;109(1):45-52.         [ Links ]

19. Sethi SK, Goyal D, Yadav DK, et al. Predictors of acute kidney injury post-cardiopulmonary bypass in children. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2011;15(4):529-34.         [ Links ]

20. Salis S, Mazzanti VV, Merli G, et al. Cardiopulmonary bypass duration is an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2008;22(6):814-22.         [ Links ]

21. Zappitelli M, Bernier PL, Saczkowski RS, et al. A small post-operative rise in serum creatinine predicts acute kidney injury in children undergoing cardiac surgery. Kidney Int. 2009;76(8):885-92.         [ Links ]

22. Chiravuri SD, Riegger LQ, Christensen R, et al. Factors associated with acute kidney injury or failure in children undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass: a case-controlled study. Paediatr Anaesth. 2011;21(8):880-6.         [ Links ]

23. Baskin E, Gulleroglu KS, Saygili A, et al. Peritoneal dialysis requiriments followig open Heart surgery in children with congenital heart disease. Ren Fail. 2010;32(7):784-7.         [ Links ]

24. Sirvinskas E, Andrejaitiene A, Raliene L, et al. Cardiopulmonary bypass managenment and acute renal failure: risk factors and prognosis. Perfussion. 2008;23(6): 323-7.         [ Links ]

25. Morimatsu H, Toda Y, Egi M, et al. Acid-base variables in patients with acude kidney injury requiring peritoneal dialysis in the pediatric cardiac care unit.
J Anesth. 2009;23(3):334-40.         [ Links ]

26. Maarslet L, Moller MB, Dall R, et al. Lactate levels predict mortality and need for peritoneal dialysis in children undergoing congenital heart surgery.
Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2012;56(4):
459-64.         [ Links ]

27. Aydin SI, Seiden HS, Blaufox AD, et al. Acute kidney injury after surgery for congenital heart disease. Ann Thorac Surg. 2012;94(5):1589-95.         [ Links ]

28. Ladha S, Kapoor PM, Singh SP, et al. The role of blood lactate clearance as a predictor of mortality in children undergoing surgery for tetralogy of Fallot. Ann Card Anaesth. 2016;19(2):217-24.         [ Links ]

29. Dittrich S, Kurschat K, Dähnert I, et al. Renal function after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery in cyanotic congenital heart disease. Int J Cardiol. 2000;73(2):173-9.         [ Links ]

30. Ruf B, Bonelli V, Balling G, et al. Intraoperative renal near-infrared spectroscopy indicates developing acute kidney injury in infants undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass: a case control study. Crit Care. 2015;19:27.         [ Links ]

31. Loza R, Estremadoyro L, Loza C, et al. Factors associated with mortality in acute renal failure in children. Pediatr Nephrol 2006;21:106-9.         [ Links ]

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