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Revista chilena de pediatría

versión impresa ISSN 0370-4106

Rev. chil. pediatr. vol.88 no.3 Santiago jun. 2017

http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0370-41062017000300018 

Brief Communication

 

Abdominal pain secondary to ileocecal fistulae by ingestion of multiple magnetic bodies. Clinical Case

Dolor abdominal secundario a fístula ileocecal por ingesta de múltiples cuerpos magnéticos. Caso Clínico

 

Roberto Cozzarellia, Stanley Jamab, Jorge Gutiérrezc

aSurgery Department. Hospital León Becerra. Guayaquil,
Ecuador
bGastroenterology Department. Hospital León Becerra.
Guayaquil, Ecuador
cAssistant of Surgery. Gastroenterology Department. Hospital León Becerra. Guayaquil, Ecuador

Introduction

Abdominal pain in pediatric patients is one of the most common causes for consultation at the emergency1 and primary care services2. The principal medical cause of gastrointestinal abdominal pain in pediatric patients is gastroenteritis whereas the surgical cause is appendicitis3. The diagnosis of patients with abdominal pain is based principally on the medical history, physical examination, and complementary studies1. In the case of complementary studies, a simple abdominal radiograph is useful when an obstruction or intestinal fistula is suspected3. The fistula of a part of the gastrointestinal tract secondary to foreign body intake occurs in 1% of the patients who ingest these bodies and can manifest as abdominal pain difficulting its diagnosis4. Our objective is to report a case of a 5-year-old child with ileocecal fistula secondary to magnetic foreign body ingestion.

Clinical case

A 5-year-old male patient attended the Emergency Department after presenting a 1-day-history of intense epigastric pain. During physical exam he had axillary temperature of 37 °C and a soft, depressive, and tender abdomen to palpation at the epigastric level. Laboratory exams reported hematocrit 33%, hemoglobin 12.6 g/dl, leukocytes 12.4 x 103/ul, platelets 317 x 103/ul, AST 39 U / L, alkaline phosphatase 292 IU/L, amylase 34 UI/L, and lipase 56 UI/L. A simple x-ray of the abdomen was performed, where multiple rounded images of defined margins and high density (metal) in number of 6 at the right iliac fossa level, ileal airway levels, and preserved preperitoneal lines were visualized (figure 1).

Figure 1. Plain abdominal X-ray were multiple rounded images of defined margins and high density (metal) in number of 6 at the right iliac fossa level are visualized.

At the directed anamnesis the mother reported that her son swallowed several metallic objects playing days ago. A re-evaluation was suggested at 24 hours waiting for these foreign bodies to continue the intestinal trajectory. The following day simple abdominal x-ray was repeated visualizing no migration of foreign bodies, surgical intervention was decided.

An exploratory laparotomy was performed where it was observed that the foreign bodies were at the level of the terminal ileum producing an ileocecal fistula. (figure 2) The fistula was released, a foreign body was removed from the cecum and repaired in two planes. The ileum orifice was extended to remove 5 foreign bodies, similar in appearance to the one in the cecum (figure 3). 3 cm of the ileum was resected 20 cm away from the ileocecal valve (fistula site) and a termino-terminal anastomosis was performed on two planes at separate points. The meso was closed and lavage was performed with abdominal cavity aspirate. Finally, the abdominal cavity was closed. The extracted foreign bodies were rounded, metallic and black (figure 4). We found that these bodies were magnetic and attracted each other.

Figure 2. Edematous ileum with apparent areas of necrosis that correspond to the trapted foreign bodies.

Figure 3. Extraction of magnetic foreign bodies at the ileum with Babcock forceps.

Figure 4. Magnetic foreign bodies extracted and resected portion of the ileum..

It was concluded that it was an ileocecal fistula secondary to multiple magnetic bodies. The patient had a favorable postoperative period up to his hospital discharge 7 days after his surgical intervention.

Discussion

The incidence of magnetic foreign body injuries in pediatric patients has increased in recent years5, reporting more than 100 cases worldwide6,7.

It usually occurs in patients between 6 months and 5 years of age8. Although most of the ingested objects passing through the stomach are expelled without injury9,10, 20% are trapped at the anatomical narrowings of the esophagus, pylorus, or ileocecal valve8.

Only 10-20% of patients who ingest foreign bodies will require endoscopic extraction11 and about 1% surgical intervention due to complications such as fistulae12,13. Among the most common fistula sites we have the rectosigmoid colon and the terminal portion of the ileum. When it involves terminal ileum it can be confused with acute appendicitis4. The intestinal fistula does not depend on the amount of ingested magnetic bodies; intake of only one can produce it by attraction to metallic objects outside the intestine like a buckle belt11. The fistula due to intake of 2 or more magnetic bodies occurs because of the intestinal interposition produced by the attraction of these bodies to each other6,14. When intestinal walls are on intimate contact by the magnetic attraction, there is necrosis by pressure producing a fistula15. The intestinal interposition by attraction of the bodies between each other was the mechanism by which our patient suffered the fistula. When one of the 6 magnetic objects passed to the cecum, the attraction and interposition between the cecum and ileum occurred, producing a necrosis of its walls and subsequent perforation.

A simple abdominal x-ray is very useful because these objects are usually radiopaque and can be visualized14. It is recommended to perform at least 2 x-rays in different positions. The disadvantage of performing only one x-ray is that it cannot be differentiated if it is one or several foreign bodies. Observing the image in different planes facilitates the differentiation of the amount of foreign bodies ingested. Also, if a study of serial radiographs is performed and the image is observed to be steady, one may suspect that multiple magnetic bodies were ingested10. In patients whose foreign body passed the duodenum, it is accepted to perform a serial study of radiographs as initial management. Laparotomy is recommended in cases of worsening of abdominal pain or signs of perforation or obstruction13. In patients with suspected radiolucent foreign bodies, contrast radiography, computed tomography or endoscopy are highly supportive. Contrast-enhanced radiograph is recommended in patients who can swallow to avoid the risk of aspiration11.

It is essential to include in the differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pain the ingestion of foreign bodies in pediatric patients due to the increased incidence of these cases which, if not treated on time, can produce death16.

 

References

1. Lora-Gómez RE. Dolor Abdominal Agudo en la Infancia. Pediatr Integral. 2014; 8: 219-28.

2. Aparicio JG. Abdomen agudo en el niño. In Benito J, Luaces C, Mintegi S, Pou J. Tratado de Urgencias en Pediatría. Ergon 2005;332-7.

3. Leung A, Sigalet D. Acute abdominal pain in children. Am Fam Physician. 2003;67:2321-7.

4. Abdullayev R, Aslan M. Ileal perforation by an odd foreign object. Ulus Cerrahi Derg. 2015;31:107-9.

5. Strickland M, Rosenfield D, Fecteau A. Magnetic foreign body injuries: a large pediatric hospital experience. J Pediatr. 2014; 165:332-5.

6. Mandhan P, Alsalihi M, Mammoo S, Ali M. Troubling Toys: Rare-Earth Magnet Ingestion in Children. Case Reports in Pediatrics. 2014; 2014.

7. Corduk N, Odabas S, Sarioglu-Buke A. Intestinal perforation caused by multiple magnet ingestion. Afr J Paediatr Surg. 2014;11:84-6.

8. Dereci S, Koca T, Serdaroğlu F, Akçam M. Foreign body ingestion in children. Turk Pediatri Ars. 2015; 50:234-40.

9. Patel R, Govani D, King J, Gee O. Endoscopic removal of a metallic touchpad stylus with partially collapsible body from the duodenojejunal flexure in a young boy. BMJ Case Rep. 2014.

10. Ahmed A, Hassab M, Al-Hussaini A, Al-Tokhais T. Magnetic toy ingestion leading to jejunocecal fistula in a child. Saudi Med J. 2010;31:442-4.

11. Ríos G, Alliende F, Miquel I, Arancibia M, Rodríguez L, Saelzer E. Extraccion endoscopica de cuerpos extraños digestivos. Rev Chil Pediatr. 2013;84:505-12.

12. Sarwa P, Dahiya R, Nityasha, et al. A curious case of foreign body induced jejunal obstruction and perforation. Int J Surg Case Rep. 2014;5:617-9.

13. Robinson A, Bingham J, Thompson R. Magnet induced perforated appendicitis and ileo-caecal fistula formation. Ulster Med J. 2009;78:4-6.

14. Muñoz M, Maluje R, Saitua F. Cuerpo gastrointestinal en niños. Rev Chil Pediatr. 2014;85:682-9.

15. Cortes C, Silva C. Ingestión accidental de imanes en niños y sus complicaciones: Un riesgo creciente. Rev Med Chile 2006;134:1315-9.

16. Agbo C, Lee L, Chiang V, et al. Magnet-related injury rates in children: a single hospital experience. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2013;57:14-7.

___________________

Received: 20-7-2016; Accepted: 27-12-2016

Ethical Responsibilities

Human Beings and animals protection: Disclosure the authors state that the procedures were followed according to the Declaration of Helsinki and the World Medical Association regarding human experimentation developed for the medical community.

Data confidentiality: The authors state that they have followed the protocols of their Center and Local regulations on the publication of patient data.

Rights to privacy and informed consent: The authors have obtained the informed consent of the patients and/or subjects referred to in the article. This document is in the possession of the correspondence author.

Conflicts of Interest

Authors state that any conflict of interest exists regards the present study.

Correspondencia a:

Jorge Gutiérrez

jorgeogh93@gmail.com

1. Lora-Gómez RE. Dolor Abdominal Agudo en la Infancia. Pediatr Integral. 2014; 8: 219-28.         [ Links ]

2. Aparicio JG. Abdomen agudo en el niño. In Benito J, Luaces C, Mintegi S, Pou J. Tratado de Urgencias en Pediatría. Ergon 2005;332-7.         [ Links ]

3. Leung A, Sigalet D. Acute abdominal pain in children. Am Fam Physician. 2003;67:2321-7.         [ Links ]

4. Abdullayev R, Aslan M. Ileal perforation by an odd foreign object. Ulus Cerrahi Derg. 2015;31:107-9.         [ Links ]

5. Strickland M, Rosenfield D, Fecteau A. Magnetic foreign body injuries: a large pediatric hospital experience. J Pediatr. 2014; 165:332-5.         [ Links ]

6. Mandhan P, Alsalihi M, Mammoo S, Ali M. Troubling Toys: Rare-Earth Magnet Ingestion in Children. Case Reports in Pediatrics. 2014; 2014.         [ Links ]

7. Corduk N, Odabas S, Sarioglu-Buke A. Intestinal perforation caused by multiple magnet ingestion. Afr J Paediatr Surg. 2014;11:84-6.         [ Links ]

8. Dereci S, Koca T, Serdaroğlu F, Akçam M. Foreign body ingestion in children. Turk Pediatri Ars. 2015; 50:234-40.         [ Links ]

9. Patel R, Govani D, King J, Gee O. Endoscopic removal of a metallic touchpad stylus with partially collapsible body from the duodenojejunal flexure in a young boy. BMJ Case Rep. 2014.         [ Links ]

10. Ahmed A, Hassab M, Al-Hussaini A, Al-Tokhais T. Magnetic toy ingestion leading to jejunocecal fistula in a child. Saudi Med J. 2010;31:442-4.         [ Links ]

11. Ríos G, Alliende F, Miquel I, Arancibia M, Rodríguez L, Saelzer E. Extraccion endoscopica de cuerpos extraños digestivos. Rev Chil Pediatr. 2013;84:505-12.         [ Links ]

12. Sarwa P, Dahiya R, Nityasha, et al. A curious case of foreign body induced jejunal obstruction and perforation. Int J Surg Case Rep. 2014;5:617-9.         [ Links ]

13. Robinson A, Bingham J, Thompson R. Magnet induced perforated appendicitis and ileo-caecal fistula formation. Ulster Med J. 2009;78:4-6.         [ Links ]

14. Muñoz M, Maluje R, Saitua F. Cuerpo gastrointestinal en niños. Rev Chil Pediatr. 2014;85:682-9.         [ Links ]

15. Cortes C, Silva C. Ingestión accidental de imanes en niños y sus complicaciones: Un riesgo creciente. Rev Med Chile 2006;134:1315-9.         [ Links ]

16. Agbo C, Lee L, Chiang V, et al. Magnet-related injury rates in children: a single hospital experience. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2013;57:14-7.         [ Links ]

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