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Revista chilena de historia natural

Print version ISSN 0716-078X

Rev. chil. hist. nat. vol.86 no.1 Santiago Mar. 2013

http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0716-078X2013000100005 

RESEARCH ARTICLE

 

Biogeographic analysis and key to the genera of ferns and lycophytes of Mburucuyá National Park, Corrientes, Argentina

Análisis biogeográfico y clave de géneros de los helechos y licofitos del Parque Nacional Mburucuyá, Corrientes, Argentina

 

ESTEBAN I. MEZA-TORRES1*, ELÍAS R. DE LA SOTA2 & MARÍA S. FERRUCCI1

1 Instituto de Botánica del Nordeste, Sargento Cabral 2131, C.C. 209, C.P. 3400, Corrientes, Argentina
2 Cátedra de Morfología Vegetal, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, UNLP, Paseo del Bosque s/n, B1900FWA, La Plata, Argentina
* Autor correspondiente: mezatorresii@yahoo.com.ar


ABSTRACT

The diversity of ferns and lycophytes of Corrientes province, Argentina is not well understood. Our field work in the Mburucuyá National Park in Corrientes province as well as a literature review finds 29 genera and 48 infrageneric taxa of ferns and lycophytes for this Park. A comparison of the Park's species diversity with other protected areas in northeastern Argentina using Jaccard's similarity coefficient and the infrageneric taxa biodiversity index proposed by Squeo et al. (1998) are analized. A key to the Park's ferns and lycophytes genera is provided.

Key words: Floristic diversity, monilophytes, protected area, pteridophytes.


RESUMEN

El Parque Nacional Mburucuyá, cuenta con una superficie de 176.80 km2, se encuentra en la provincia de Corrientes, Argentina, dentro de una región ecotonal entre los dominios Chaqueños y Amazónicos. En esta área se registraron 29 géneros y 48 taxones infragenéricos de helechos y liocófitos fueron registrados. Las especies registradas son comparadas con las áreas protegidas ya estudiadas del noreste de Argentina utilizando el coeficiente de similitud de Jaccard y el índice de biodiversidad de Squeo et al. (1998) a nivel infragenérico. En este trabajo se proporciona una clave para diferenciar los géneros presentes en el Parque.

Palabras clave: Área protegida, diversidad florística, monilófitos, pteridófita.


 

INTRODUCTION

In tropical woodlands, ferns are often present at or above eye level. In arid areas or on newly exposed surfaces such as burns, clear-cuts or landslides, ferns can be present and sometimes are the dominant vegetation (Sharpe et al. 2010). Some species possess high reproductive and dispersal capacities; if appropriate conditions are present, they may become invasive (Caluff & Fiallo 2008).

There are few studies of the fern (monilophytes, sensu Pryer et al. 2004), and lycophyte flora of northeastern Argentina. The synopsis of these groups for the Cuña Pirú Reserve from the province of Misiones (Márquez et al. 2006) is the only study available for this part of Argentina. There are few other fern and lycophyte inventories for Misiones (Biganzoli & Múlgura de Romero 2004, Tressens et al. 2008), and Corrientes (Arbo & Tressens 2002). To date, including the works cited above as well as new records, 103 infrageneric taxa of ferns and lycophytes are known in the province of Corrientes (Meza-Torres & Keller 20081).

The Mburucuyá National Park (N. P.) in Corrientes, Argentina, was established on June 27th, 2001, by an Argentinian National Law 25447. This Park, with an area of 176.80 km2, was originally two ranches, Santa Teresa and Santa María; whose owner, Troels Myndel Pedersen, donated them to the Argentinian government in 1991, with the explicit objective of establishing a national park. Pedersen (1992) compiled a floristic inventory of the park based on more than 40 years of botanical collections. This inventory included 28 genera and 43 infrageneric taxa of ferns and lycophytes, two were exotic and only one species was considered endemic. Novelties to this fern flora have been documented in Macluf et al. (2010), Meza-Torres et al. (2006, 2008), and Meza-Torres (2011).

According to Cabrera (1971), the area is an ecotone with elements from Paranaense, Chaco and Espinal phytogeographical provinces. Saibene & Montanelli (1997) mapped the park's woody plant communities, and recognized the following units: hygrophilous forest; subxerophytic forest; Guadua chacoensis bamboo forest, "Tacuaral"; Copernicia alba palm forest ("Caranday" palm forest); Schinopsis balansae forest; Prosopis affinis forest, "Espinillo" forest; and the Yatay palm grove. The presence of marshes and ponds contribute to the area's diverse wetland vegetation. This array of plant communities explains the region's floristic richness, with 1383 species; of which 933 are Dicotyledons and 407 are Monocotyledons (Arbo 2004), this represents over half of the species recorded for the entire province (Zuloaga et al. 1999). In the Copernicia alba palm forest, Schinopsis balansae forest, Prosopis affinis forest, and Yatay palm grove, periodic controlled burning is conducted to reduce fuel build-up, which decreases the likelihood of serious wildfires, and curbs the proliferation of shrubs in grasslands.

In 2003, researchers from the Instituto de Botánica del Nordeste initiated a project to study the Flora of Mburucuyá N. P. because Corrientes province's ferns and lycophytes were not well studied, one of the aims of the project was to survey the area's ferns and lycophytes, as well as develop descriptions and keys for the genera.

The aims of this paper are: 1) to provide a key of the fern and lycophyte genera growing in Mburucuyá N. P.; 2) to estimate the diversity of these plant groups and, 3) to compare species diversity of the park with other near by protected areas (Iberá macrosystem in Corrientes, the Valle del Arroyo Cuñá Pirú Reserve, Guaraní Multiple Uses Reserve, and Teyú Cuaré Provincial Park, from the province of Misiones). These protected areas were selected because they are the ones closest to Mburucuyá N. P. for which there are studies available.

METHODS

Study area

Mburucuyá N. P. is 176.80 km2 in area, located in the province of Corrientes (27°58'-26°05'S, 57°59'-58°08'W), about 150 km SE of Corrientes city (Fig. 1). The land is in the NE part of Mburucuyá Department, delineated by Santa Lucía wetlands to the south and Fragosa Ravine to the north. The park is crossed by the west-east running N° 86 road, which connects Mburucuyá and Palmar Grande. The climate in Mburucuyá N. P. is warm subtropical, with a low annual thermal amplitude. Average annual rainfall is 1300 mm, decreasing from northeast to southwest, and is almost evenly distributed throughout the year; although with a low decrease in summer and a more marked decrease in winter. Fall and winter are the wettest and driest seasons. Mean annual temperature in the period from 1961-1990 was between 21°-23°C (Pedersen, ined.). Between 1980 and 1981, mean annual humidity was 75.9 % (http://www.patrimonionatural.com).


 

Fig. 1. Location of Mburucuyá National Park. Map based on Saibene & Montanelli (1997).

Localización del Parque Nacional Mburucuyá basada en Saibene & Montanelli (1997).

Systematic assignment

We analyzed the historical specimens of the Pedersen herbarium, which are deposited in the CTES Herbarium, as well as the most recent collections of E.I. Meza-Torres from the study area. As there is no consensus among taxonomists in delimitation of ferns and lycophyte families, the present contribution provides results only at the genus level, and does not include family treatment (Keller et al. 2011). Genera nomenclature follows Smith et al. (2006).

Analysis offloristic diversity

Nomenclature of biogeographic areas follows Cabrera (1971) and Cabrera & Willink (1980). We constructed a presence (1) - absence (0) qualitative matrix of infrageneric taxa for the biogeographic areas (Appendix 2). According to Squeo et al. (1998), the number of taxa depends logarithmically on the sampling area and taxonomic biodiversity (B) is calculated as B = ni/ln A where ni is the number of taxa (species = Bsp) and ln is the natural logarithm of the sampling unit area in km2. The diversity of ferns and lycophytes Mburucuya N. P. were compared with the protected areas in the Iberá macrosystem in Corrientes Province, Valle del Arroyo Cuñá Pirú Reserve, Guaraní Multiple Uses Reserve, Teyú Cuaré Provincial Park, and surrounding areas from the province of Misiones. These protected areas were selected because they are closest to Mburucuyá N. P. for which studies are available. Due to constant transfers genus of the species by advances in taxonomic studies, diversity indices were evaluated only at the species level. The number of taxa and the area of each sampling unit were taken from Arbo & Tressens (2002), Biganzoli & Múlgura de Romero (2004), Márquez et al. (2006), and Tressens et al. (2008). Floristic similarity of infrageneric taxa among the protected areas was estimated with the Jaccard's similarity index (IJ) with the software PAST version 1.75b (Hammer et al. 2001).

RESULTS

Twenty nine genera and 48 infrageneric taxa were recorded in the Park, from which 53 % of species were found in the hygrophilous forest (Fig. 2). Amphibious vegetation represents 25 % of the species. The Yatay palm grove has 14 % of the species. The lower numbers of species occupy Subxerophytic forest (4 %), Schinopsis balansae forest (2 %), and Prosopis affinis forest (2 %).



 

Fig. 2. Percentages of ferns and lycophytes occupying various plant communities in Mburucuyá National Park, Corrientes, Argentina.

Relaciones entre los porcentajes de helechos y licofitos en la composición de las comunidades de plantas en el Parque Nacional Mburucuyá, Argentina.

A key to the genera of ferns and lycophytes is shown in Appendix 1.

Regarding to habitat substrate preferences, 52 % of the species have a terrestrial habit (Fig. 3), whereas only 23 % of the species are aquatic. Epiphytic ferns are an important group within the park, as they represent the 19 % of the species, to this value 6 % must be added for the facultative epiphytic species, Phlebodium aureum (L.) J. Sm. and Psilotum nudum (L) P.Beauv.



 

Fig. 3. Percentages of ferns and lycophytes with their habitat preferences in Mburucuyá National Park, Corrientes, Argentina.

Relaciones entre los porcentajes de especies de helechos y licofitos con sus preferencias de sustrato en el Parque Nacional Mburucuyá, Argentina.

Biodiversity and similarity indices

Except for Iberá (Bsp = 4.7), the Biodiversity Index of N. Mburucuyá (Bsp = 9.1) was lower than other surrounding protected areas (Table 1).

TABLE 1

Comparison of the number of genera, number of infrageneric taxa, indexes of diversity (biodiversity of infrageneric taxa = Bsp) and area of the protected areas studied in the northeast Argentina.

Análisis comparativo de helechos y licofitos, número de géneros y taxa infragenéricos, con los índices de diversidad de las áreas protegidas estudiadas en el noreste de Argentina. Biodiversidad de taxa infragenéricos = Bsp

 

The results of the Jaccard's similarity index (Table 2) for the different areas showed that the Mburucuya N. P. shares the most similarity with Iberá R. (Ij = 0.44), while the lowest similarity occurs with Teyú Cuaré P. P. (Ij = 0.20).

TABLE 2

Matrix representing the similarity (IJ) of the composition of infrageneric taxa of ferns and lycophytes between the different protected areas.

Matriz representando la similitud (Ij) en la composición de los taxa infragenéricos de helechos y licofitos entre las diferentes áreas protegidas estudiadas.

 

DISCUSSION

The genus Thelypteris Schmidel with five species (10.41 % of the park's fern and lycophyte flora) is most species rich genus in the Park, followed by Pecluma M.G. Price, with four species (8.33 %), and Doryopteris J. Sm. and Ophioglossum L. with three species each (6.25 %), whereas two infrageneric taxa were recorded for Adiantopsis Fée, Anemia Sw., Asplenium L., Azolla Lam., Pityrogramma L., Pleopeltis Willd., and Salvinia Ség. (4.16 %) (Fig. 4). The other genera are represented by only one species each (2.08 %).



 

Fig.4. Percentage of fern and lycophyte genera composition in Mburucuyá National Park, Corrientes, Argentina.

Composición en porcentajes de géneros de helechos y licofitos en el Parque Nacional Mburucuyá, Argentina.

Among the 48 species, only two are exotic, Macrothelypteris torresiana (Gaudich.) Ching and Thelypteris dentata (Forssk.) E.P. St. John (Ponce 1987); these ferns are considered weeds by Caluff & Fuentes Fiallo (2008). Pedersen (1992) reported the presence of M. torresiana at only two sites within the park, and one site for T. dentata, these three sites are about 4 km northwest of the Santa Teresa Ranch. recent collections, (2007), T. dentata expanded its distribution southward, up to 2 km south of Santa Teresa Ranch. Macrothelypteris torresiana grows within the Santa Maria Ranch, to 9 km west of the sites previously reported by Pedersen (1992). Was observed that T. dentata invaded old abandoned houses that were absorbed by the forest. Macrothelypteris torresiana has invaded artificial streams and moved into the forest. Fortunately, both species are not as highly invasive, as was observed (Keller pers. com. 2008) in Misiones province, where M. torresiana colonizes and invades the planted Araucaria angustifolia forest. Controlled burning is periodically conducted in the Copernicia alba palm forest, Schinopsis balansae forest, Prosopis affinis forest, and Yatay palm grove. Native species inhabiting these environments survive the burns because many of these species have rhizomes that help make them fire resistant (e.g. Adiantopsis chlorophylla (Sw.) Fée, A. tweedieana (Hook.) Link-Pérez & Hickey, Blechnum serrulatum Rich., Pityrogramma trifoliata (L.) R.M. Tryon, Pteridium arachnoideum (Kaulf.) Maxon).

An important point to note is that the Mburucuyá N. P. is the type locality for Isoetes pedersenii E.I. Meza & Macluf; there are only two known localities for this species, one into the Park (Macluf et al. 2010), and the other in the Brazilian Pantanal (Pott & Pott 1997).

Compared with nearby protected areas (Table 1), Mburucuyá N. P. (with 29 genera) has a higher genera richness than Cuña Pirú Reserve (28 genera) and Teyú Cuaré Provincial Park (25 genera). However, Guaraní Multiple Use Reserve exhibits the highest species richness, with 80 infrageneric taxa of ferns and lychophytes grouped into 38 genera. As it was expected, the three protected areas of Misiones presented the highest biodiversity indices at genus and species levels; these results agree with findings of Cabrera (1971), since the entire Misiones province is influenced by the Amazon phytogeographic domain, characterized by a high species richness of ferns. Indeed, Teyú Cuaré Provincial Park is a particular biogeographic area, with Amazonian elements of the Paranaense and Cerrado phytogeographic provinces, represented by species such as Trichomanes pilosum Raddi and Elaphoglossum pachydermum (Fée) T. Moore (Biganzoli & Múlgura de Romero 2004). Another phytogeographic phenomenon observed in Mburucuyá N. P. are its ecotones (Cabrera 1971), the park harbours different elements from Amazonian domains (sensu Cabrera & Willink 1980), such as Asplenium gastonis Fée, Campyloneurum nitidum (Kaulf.) C. Presl, and other species of the genus Pecluma (P! filicula (Kaulf.) M.G. Price, P. pectinatiformis (Lindm.) M.G. Price, P. sicca (Lindm.) M.G. Price, and P. robusta (Fée) M. Kessler & A.R. Sm.). In addition, species of the Chaco domain are represented, such as Anogramma chaerophylla (Desv.) Link, and Adiantopsis tweedieana, the latter from Eastern Chaco and Highland Chaco, which is also present in the "Espinal" phytogeographical province (Ponce & Morbelli 1989).

Iberá Natural Reserve is also situated in an ecotone, but has relatively low diversity (Bsp = 4.7), probably because most of the reserve area is covered by water and harbours hydrophytic vegetation. For this reason, endemic species are not present in the Mburucuyá N. P. and the Iberá region.

Mburucuyá N. P. has seven species that are not known from the other study areas (Asplenium sellowianum Hieron., Doryopteris lorentzii (Hieron.) Diels, Isoetes pedersenii, Phlebodium aureum, Rumohra adiantiformis (G. Forst.) Ching, Salvinia auriculata Aubl., and Vittaria graminifolia Kaulf.) (Appendix 2). The matrix calculated using Jaccard's similarity indices (Table 2) reveals that Mburucuyá N. P. and Iberá Macrosystem show great affinity (IJ = 0.44), sharing 28 infrageneric taxa, such as Anemia phyllitidis (L.) Sw. var. tweedieana (Hook.) Hassl., Doryopteris pentagona Pic. Serm., Marsilea ancylopoda A. Braun, Microgramma vacciniifolia (Langsd. & Fisch.) Copel., Ophioglossum reticulatum L., Pityrogramma calomelanos, Pleopeltis minima (Bory) J.Prado & R.Y.Hirai, Pteridium arachnoideum, Selaginella sellowii Hieron., Thelypteris dentata, and T. hispidula (Decne.) C.F. Reed. Another seven species shared only between these two areas have a wider distribution; these are Azolla filiculoides Lam., Blechnum serrulatum, Ceratopteris pteridoides (Hook.) Hieron., Ophioglossum nudicaule L. f., Pecluma robusta, Salvinia minima Baker, and Thelypteris interrupta (Willd.) K. Iwats. Floristic similarity to the other three areas is relatively low, with values below IJ : 0.23. The areas of greatest similarity with Mburucuyá N. P. are Guaraní M. U. R. (IJ : 0.23) and R. Valle del Arroyo Cuñá Pirú R (IJ : 0.22). The taxa shared by these three areas are Adiantopsis chlorophylla, Adiantum pseudotinctum Hieron., Anemia phyllitidis var phyllitidis, A. phyllitidis var. tweedieana, Asplenium gastonis, Doryopteris pentagona, Macrothelypteris torresiana, Pecluma filicula, Pleopeltis minima, Pteridium arachnoideum, Pteris denticulate Sw., Thelypteris dentata. Whereas taxa common to all the study areas are Adiantopsis chlorophylla, Anemia phyllitidis var phyllitidis, Anogramma chaerophylla, Campyloneurum nitidum, Doryopteris concolor (Langsd. & Fisch.) Kuhn, Hemionitis tomentosa (Lam.) Raddi, Pleopeltis pleopeltifolia (Raddi) Alston.

According to the information from the Catalogue of Vascular Plants of the Southern Cone and recent published works (Meza-Torres et al. 2008, Meza-Torres & Keller 20081) the number of infrageneric taxa of ferns and lychophytes in the province of Corrientes amounts to 103. Notably, Mburucuyá N. P., with an area of 176.80 km2 (about 0.2 % of the area of Corrientes province), harbours about 43.7 % of the fern and lychophyte species known for this political province. Thus, this National Park is critical for the conservation of the provinces fern and lycophyte flora.

Further floristic studies in Copo National Park, located in the Chaco phytogeographic province, are necessary in order to exclusively Chacoan species can be compared with the areas analyzed in this study.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: We thank M. M. Arbo for reviewing an earlier version of the manuscript as well as National Park Administrator, G. Rubio for helpful suggestions on the manuscript, J. R. Gutierrez-Camus and M. Stensvold for improving the English version. We also thank the park foresters for their hospitality during the development of this project. Financial support was provided by Myndel Botanica Foundation, the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (PIP N° 112-200801-02248), the Universidad Nacional del Nordeste (PI A005-2009).

 

NOTES

1 MEZA-TORRES, EI & HA KELLER (2008) Novedades para la pteridoflora del Nordeste argentino. Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica, Suplemento 44: 95.

 

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APPENDIX 1

Key to the genera of ferns and lycophytes from Mburucuyá National Park, Argentina. Clave para los géneros de helechos y licofitos del Parque Nacional Mburucuyá, Argentina.

1. Plants aquatic or amphibious, the latter without blackish rhizomes ............................................................................. (2)

1'. Plants terrestrial, epiphytic or saxicolous, if amphibious with blackish rhizomes ............................................................ (6)

2 (1). Blades with gemmae, bipinnate; homosporous plants................................................................9. Ceratopteris Brongn.

2'. Blades without gemmae, lobate, linear or 4-foliolate (cloverlike); heterosporous plants.................................................. (3)

3 (2'). Free-floating plants; floating leaves orbicular or oval, submerged leaves modified into laciniae ...................................(4)

3'. Amphibious plants, rooted; leaves linear or peltate 4-foliolate (cloverlike), laciniae absent ............................................ (5)

4 (3). Pinnae less than 1 mm long, the floating ones adaxially convex, with short dorsal papillae ...........................6. Azolla Lam.

4'. Pinnae more than 10 mm long, the floating ones curled up, with dorsal papillae,

each papilla with four apical hairs ......................................................................................................... 25. Salvinia Ség.

5 (3'). Blades simple linear; sporangia axillary................................................................................................12. Isoetes L.

5'. Blades compound, 4-foliolate; sporangia in subterranean sporocarps .......................................................... 14. Marsilea L.

6 (1'). Plants creeping forming grasses; linear-subulate microphylls up to 4 mm long............................. 26. Selaginella P. Beauv.

6'. Plants erect or epiphytic; macrophylls erect, developed, or with enations................................................................... (7)

7 (6'). Multilayered sporangial walls (eusporangiate).................................................................................................... (8)

7'. Single-layered sporangial wall (leptosporangiate).....................................................................................................(9)

8. Plants with macrophylls; sporangia clustered on a stalked spike inserted on the leaf base.........................16. Ophioglossum L.

8'. Plants leafless or with sterile appendages, dichotomous axes; synangia axillary, 3-sporangiate,

on a very short axis.............................................................................................................................21. Psilotum Sw.

9 (7'). Sporangia clustered only in the proximal pair of pinnae.........................................................................3. Anemia Sw.

9'. Sporangia clustered in the hypophyll .................................................................................................................. (10)

10 (9'). Sporangia clustered in elongated linear sori or costal coenosori..........................................................................(11)

10'. Sporangia scattered along veins, or clustered in marginal coenosori,

or sori round isolated or confluent at maturity............................................................................................................(14)

11 (10). Sporangia clustered in costal coenosori on pinnate blades ............................................................... 7. Blechnum L.

11'. Sporangia clustered in elongated sori in secondary veins on divided blades or sori linear on linear blades ....................... (12)

12 (11'). Rhizomes dorsiventral; sori with paraphysis....................................................................................29. Vittaria Sm.

12'. Rhizomes radial; sori without paraphysis............................................................................................................. (13)

13 (12'). Sori protected by a lateral indusium ..................................................................................... 5. Asplenium C. Presl

13. Sori exindusiate...............................................................................................................................11. Hemionitis L.

14 (10'). Sporangia naked or protected by indusia reniform or round, never protected

by farinaceous secretions or recurved blade margins................................................................................................... (15)

14'. Sporangia protected by recurved blade margins, pseudoindusium or by farinaceous secretions...................................... (23)

15 (14). Sori exindusiate; phyllopodium always present............................................................................................... (16)

15'. Sori indusiate; indusium persistent or caducous; in the latter case bi-tripinnate blades;

phyllopodium always absent .................................................................................................................................. (21)

16 (15). Blades entire .......................................................................................................................................... (17)

16'. Blades pinnatisect or pinnatipartite.................................................................................................................... (18)

17 (16). Fronds monomorphic more than 10 cm long, approximate; rhizome short and robust,

with brown scales laxly arranged; sori multiseriate.........................................................................8. Campyloneurun C. Presl

17'. Fronds dimorphic, less than 10 cm long, spaced; rhizome long-creeping, with hyaline scales

densely arranged; sori uniseriate ............................................................................................... 15. Microgramma C. Presl

18 (16'). Veins free; rhizome scales basally attached .........................................................................17. Pecluma M. G. Price

18'. Veins netted; rhizome with peltate scales............................................................................................................. (19)

19 (18'). Fronds glabrous or glabrescent, generally more than 35 cm long; petiole straw-colored or brown shiny ..................... (20)

19'. Fronds scaly, smaller than 35 cm long; petiole scaly, never stramineous..................................................20. Pleopeltis Willd.

20 (19). Sori borned on two excurrent fused veinlets, included in an soriferous areole ......................18. Phlebodium (R. Br.) J. Sm.

20'. Sori borned on a single, free, excurrent veinlet, included in an soriferous areole ..............................27. Serpocaulon A. R. Sm.

21 (15'). Blades pinnate, indusium generally persistent........................................................................28. Thelypteris Schmidel

21'. Blades bi-tripinnate, indusium caduceus................................................................................................................ (22)

22 (21'). Fronds pilose....................................................................................................13. Macrothelypteris (H. It6) Ching

22'. Fronds glabrous ........................................................................................................................... 24. Rumohra Raddi

23 (14'). Rhizome pilose; nectaries at base of proximal pinnae.....................................................................22. Pteridium Scop.

23'. Rhizome glabrous or scaly, nectaries absent...........................................................................................................(24)

24. (23') Sporangia immersed in farinaceous secretions ........................................................................ 19. Pityrogramma Link

24'. Sporangia without farinaceous secretions.............................................................................................................. (25)

25 (24'). Blades pinnate or pinnate-pinnatifid......................................................................................................24. Pteris L.

25'. Blades bi-tripinnatipartite or pinnatisect, pentagonal or subtriangular, or 2 to more times pinnate,

triangular-elongate ................................................................................................................................................. (26)

26 (25'). Fronds bi-tripinnatipartite or -pinnatisect, pentagonal; sporangia in coenosori.................................10. Doryopteris J. Sm.

26'. Fronds tri-bipinnate or tripinnatisect, triangular o linear-lanceolate; sporangia in isolated

sori or somewhat confluent at maturity or scattered along veins.......................................................................................(27)

27. (26') Sporangia scattered along veins.................................................................................................4. Anogramma Link

27'. Sporangia in circular sori, sometimes connivent at maturity........................................................................................ (28)

28. Pseudoindusium without veins..............................................................................................................1. Adiantopsis Fée

28' Pseudoindusium with veins........................................................................................................................2. Adiantum L.

 

APPENDIX 2

Matrix of taxa used to obtain the similarity index of the floristic composition of ferns and lycophytes among the different protected areas from northeast Argentina. Presence (1) - absence (0).

Matriz de taxa usada para obtener el índice de similitud de la composición florística de helechos y licofitos entre las diferentes áreas protegidas del nordeste de Argentina. Presencia (1) - ausencia (0).

 








 


Editorial responsibility: Julio R. Gutiérrez
Received May 22, 2012; accepted December 28, 2012

 

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