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vol.71 issue1GROWTH OF JUVENILE MARINE SILVERSIDE (Odontesthes regia Humboldt, 1821) (Atherinidae) IN SEA NET PEN CAGESMESOPELAGIC FISH CENTROLOPHUS NIGER (GMELIN, 1789) (PISCES: PERCIFORMES) RECORDED IN CHILEAN CONTINENTAL SLOPE WATERS OF SOUTH AMERICAN PLATE author indexsubject indexarticles search
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Gayana (Concepción)

Print version ISSN 0717-652XOn-line version ISSN 0717-6538

Gayana (Concepc.) vol.71 no.1 Concepción June 2007

http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-65382007000100009 

 

Gayana 71(1): 84-95, 2007

AMBIENTE ACUATICO

CATCH COMPOSITION OF THE DEEP SEA SHRIMP FISHERY (Solenocera agassizi Faxon, 1893; FARFANTEPENAEUS CALIFORNIENSIS HOLMES, 1900 AND FARFANTEPENAEUS BREVIROSTRIS KINGSLEY, 1878) IN THE COLOMBIAN PACIFIC OCEAN

COMPOSICION DE LA CAPTURA EN LA PESQUERIA DEL CAMARON DE AGUAS PROFUNDAS (SOLENOCERA AGASSIZI FAXON, 1893; FARFANTEPENAEUS CALIFORNIENSIS HOLMES, 1900, y FARFANTEPENAEUS BREVIROSTRIS KINGSLEY, 1878) DEL OCEANO PACIFICO COLOMBIANO

Vladimir Puentes1, Nayibe Madrid2 & Luis A. Zapata3

1Kagoshima University, Faculty of Fisheries, Japan. Email: zanclus0715@gmail.com

2Colombian Institute of Rural Development (INCODER), Fisheries and Aquaculture Division. Email: namaco@yahoo.com

3WWF Colombia, Email: lazapata@wwf.org.co


Abstract

The Colombian deep sea shrimp fishery is carried out by vessels with double bottom trawl fishing gear. There is a wide variety in the catch composition species, in which many of them have a wide distribution depth range. Fifty four fish species of 35 families, 11 crustacean species of 11 families, and one mollusk species were identified. Some holothurians, gastropods, echinoderms and other mollusks also appeared occasionally. The joint analysis of the current and former studies determined 85 species in the catch composition of this fishery. The Colombian bottom trawl fishery is actually using the turtle excluder device as the only technical adaptation of the fishing gear to reduce the bycatch turtles, but seems to exclude other big size commercial bycatch. There are some non-commercial bycatch species suitable for human consumption, but they are discarded due to their low price in the market, low abundance or bad aspect for the consumer.

Keywords: Deep sea shrimp, catch composition, faunal bycatch.


Resumen

La pesca del camarón de aguas profundas se realiza en Colombia utilizando barcos con redes de arrastre de fondo con aparejo doble. Existe una amplia variedad de especies capturadas en la pesquería del camarón de aguas profundas, donde muchas de éstas presentan un amplio rango de distribución batimétrica. Se identificaron 54 especies de peces pertenecientes a 35 familias y 11 especies de crustáceos de 11 familias y una especie de molusco. Otros moluscos, holotúridos y equinodermos aparecen también ocasionalmente en la composición de la captura. El análisis de éste y otros trabajos anteriores determina un total de 85 especies reportadas como parte de la composición de la captura de esta pesquería. La flota pesquera de arrastre del camarón de aguas someras y profundas de Colombia utiliza los dispositivos excluidores de tortugas como única adaptación técnica en el aparejo de pesca, con miras a evitar la aparición de tortugas, los cuales al parecer también excluyen fauna acompañante de gran tamaño. Algunas especies de la fauna acompañante no comercial son comestibles, pero son descartadas dado su bajo precio en el mercado, poca abundancia o aspecto físico no atractivo para el consumidor.

Palabras claves: Camarón de aguas profundas, composición de la captura, fauna acompañante.


INTRODUCCION

The bycatch of the tropical multi-species fisheries, specially the shrimp bottom trawl fishery, is often discarded. However, the amount of discarded bycatch differs among regions; In Asia a relatively small amount of the bycatch is discarded, if compared with Africa and Latin America, where a high percentage of the bycatch is thrown back to the sea. In Latin America and the Caribbean the shrimp fishery take more than one million tons as bycatch, in which approximately 80% is discarded, with the exceptions of Cuba and El Salvador, where almost all of the bycatch is utilized (Clucas & Teutscher 1999).

In Colombia, both shallow and deep trawl fishery use vessels with a double bottom trawl gear as the one described by Fyson (1982). The bottom trawl deep sea shrimp fishery is made from 40 fathoms depth (72m), and addressed to catch species such as Farfantepenaeus californiensis Holmes 1900 ("camarón Café" or "Chocolate"), Farfantepenaeus brevirostris Kingsley 1878 ("camarón pink"), and Solenocera agassizi Faxon, 1893 ("camarón coliflor"). Heterocarpus spp. (Heterocarpus vicarius Faxon, 1895 and/or Heterocarpus hostilis Faxon, 1893; "camarón cabezudo"). They are usually bycatch species but may become the main targeting species at deeper depths, captured mainly by bottom traps.

The shallow water shrimp bycatch have been studied in Latin America by Grande-Vidal & Díaz-López (1981), Alvares-León & Bernal-Solano (1983), Campos (1983a, 1983b, 1986), Martínez (1986), Clucas (1997), Bello (1998), Cabello et al. (1998), Cisneros (1998), Garcia & Avalos, (1998), Florez del Valle (1998), Marcano (1998), Font (1998), Morales (1998), and López (1999). There are some other descriptive, fish taxonomic and zoogeographic studies, whose samples were taken on shrimp bottom trawl fishing vessels in the Colombian Pacific Ocean (Alvarez-León & Bernal-Solano 1983; Rubio 1987;1988 a, b; Castillo 1998).

On the other hand, very little is known about the catch composition of the deep sea shrimp fishery. There are a few reports about the deep sea shrimp bycatch for the species Pandalus borealis Kroyer, 1838 and Aristaeomorpha foliacea (Risso 1827) (Poulsen 1973; Ultang & Oynes 1978; Howard 1983, and Bianchini 1999), and Lambert (1989) reported the fish bycatch in the deep sea shrimp fishery of Mozambique. In Colombia, Sierra (1976) and Alvarez-León & Ben-Tuvia (1989) reported the commercially important and most frequent bycatch species in the Pacific Ocean, respectively.

The present study addresses the Colombian Pacific Ocean deep sea shrimp catch composition, including commercial and non-commercial species, compares results with the former studies mentioned above in the area, and makes some remarks about the use of the turtle excluder device (TED), as the only technical adaptation to reduce the bycatch in the area.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Between April 1993 and March 1994, monthly samples were taken on board of commercial deep sea shrimp fishing vessels with headquarters in the port of Buenaventura, Colombia. Three sampling geographic zones were determined, depending on the geomorphology of the continental shelf: North zone from the limit with Panama to Cabo Corrientes, Central zone from Cabo Corrientes to Golfo de Tortugas, and South zone, from Golfo de Tortugas to the limit with Ecuador (Fig. 1). Main species samples (deep sea shrimp) were taken according to the method established by Pauly (1983). Bycatch species were separated and identified on board as much as possible. In case of being unable to identify some specimens in the field, samples were taken, fixed in 10% formalin, and brought to the laboratory for further identification analysis. The fish taxonomic identification was done following the taxonomic keys of Chirichigno (1974), Bussing and López (1983), Rubio (1988b), and Fisher et al. (1995); The crustacean identification followed the taxonomic keys of Lemaitre and Alvarez-León (1992), and Fisher et al. (1995). Synonymies were corrected using Chirichigno & Vélez (1998), Chirichigno & Cornejo (2001), Fishbase (Froese and Pauly, 2005) and Eschmeyer (www.calacademy.org).

Samples were taken between 20 and 200 fathoms depth (36 and 360 m, respectively). Samples of 2-4 hours trawl from 40 fathoms depth (72 m) and deeper were chosen for this study, which corresponds to the deep sea waters according to the Colombian fishery law (Law 13 of 1990).



Figure 1. Fishing grounds (dashed lines) of the deep sea shrimp fishery during the present study in the Colombian Pacific Ocean.

Figura 1. Lugares de pesca del camarón de aguas profundas en el Océano Pacífico colombiano en el presente estudio.


 Table Ia: List of the deep sea shrimp catch composition species identified.

Tabla Ia: Lista de las especies identificadas como parte de la composición de la captura del camarón de aguas profundas.



RESULTS

The catch composition of the deep sea shrimp fishery found during this study is listed in Tables I A, I B and II. Fifty four fish species from 35 families (six up to the genera), 11 crustacean species from 11 families two species up to the genera) and one mollusk for a total of 66 species were identified.

There was a variety of deep sea shrimp bycatch species with a wide depth distribution range. From 54 fish species identified, only 12 were exclusively deep sea species, while eight of the 11 crustacean species identified belong to deeper waters (tables I and II, species marked with asterisk *). Other species had a wide range of depth distribution, and could be found in shallow waters as well (from 0 to 40 fathoms depth).

The most frequent fish species during the period of study (> 90% of appearance) were Citharichtys gilberti Jenkins & Evermann 1889, Cyclopsetta querna (Jordan & Bollman 1890), Hippoglossina tetrophtalma (Gilbert 1890) (Paralichthydae); Ophichthus remiger (Valenciennes 1842), Ophichthus triserialis (Kaup 1856) (Ophichthidae); Brotula clarkae, Hubbs 1944, Ophidium fulvum (Hildebrand & Barton 1949), Lepophidium prorates Jordan & Bollman 1890 (Ophidiidae); Hemanthias signifier (Garman 1899), Hemanthias peruanus (Steindachner 1875), Diplectrum euryplectrum Jordan & Bollman 1890 (Serranidae); Peprilus medius (Peters 1869), Peprilus snyderi Gilbert & Starks 1904 (Stromateidae); Bellator gymnostethus Gilbert 1892, Prionotus stephanophrys Lockington 1881, Prionotus albirostris Jordan & Bollman 1890, Prionotus ruscarius Gilbert &Starks 1904, and Prionotus punctatus (Bloch 1793) (Triglidae).

Economically important fish species with a wide depth distribution range were: Macrodon mordax (Gilbert & Starks 1904), Umbrina dorsalis Gill, 1862 (Sciaenidae), P. medius, P. snyderi (Stromateidae), B. clarkae (Ophidiidae), Epinephelus acanthistius Gilbert 1892, Paralabrax humeralis (Valenciennes 1828), D. euryplectrum (Serranidae), C. querna (Paralichthydae) and P. stephanophrys (Triglidae). Fish species with a commercial value found only in deep waters were H. signifer and H. peruanus (Serranidae).

The most frequent bycatch crustacean species were Maiopsis panamensis Faxon 1893, Portunus iridiscens Rathbun 1893, Squilla biformis Bigelow 1891, Latreutes antiborealis Holthius 1952, and Heterocarpus spp. (H. vicarius and/or H. hostilis, which are commercially important). Mollusks such as the squid Lolliguncula panamensis Berry 1911 (Loliginidae) and some octopuses (Octopus spp.) also appeared frequently in the catch composition. Some gastropods, holothurians and echinoderms (shells, bivalves, sea cucumbers, starfishes, sea urchins, etc.) appeared sporadically as well, but weren't identified in detail.

Table II: Deep sea shrimp catch composition species of crustaceans and mollusks identified.

Tabla II: Crustáceos y moluscos identificados como parte de la composición de la captura del camarón de aguas profundas.



From 54 fish species identified, 19 species are usually retained on board. The remaining ones are discarded. All crustacean species are discarded while the only mollusk identified is retained. Species retained are to be sold or for self consumption.

DISCUSSION

There is a general world concern about the bottom trawl bycatch. Detailed analysis of the information showed a world bycatch captures of 27 million tons average per year, from which the tropical shrimp trawl fisheries has the highest percentage accounting for one third of the global total (Alverson et al. 1994). In Colombia there is also an increasing concern about the bottom trawl shrimp bycatch, but this is a quite recent field of study, specially the deep sea shrimp bycatch, due to the quite recent growth of the deep sea shrimp fishery in the Pacific Ocean.

Only two studies have been reported regarding the deep sea shrimp bycatch in the Colombian Pacific Ocean. Sierra (1976) reported nine commercially important bycatch fish species in the deep sea shrimp Solenocera agassizi fishery, which poorly agree in the number of species reported in this study. The fish species reported by Sierra (1976) are Mycteroperca xenarcha Jordan 1888, Cynoponticus coniceps (Jordan & Gilbert 1882), Parapsettus panamensis (Steindachner 1875), Echinorhinus cookei Pietschmann 1928, Heterodontus quoyi (Fréminville 1840), E. acanthistius, H. signifier, L. prorates and B. clarkae, from which five species were reported in this study too (B. clarkae, L. prorates, E. acanthistius, H. signifer and H. peruanus). Alvarez-León & Ben-Tuvia (1989) reported the 26 most important fish species captured by the deep sea shrimp fishery in the Colombian Pacific Ocean, from which nine species coincide with our study (Lophoides caulinaris (Garman 1899), Zalieutes elater (Jordan & Gilbert 1882), Caulolatis affinis Gill 1865, E. acanthistius, H. signifer, H. peruanus, B.clarkae, L. prorrates, and C. querna). On the other hand, the species reported by Sierra (1976), were also reported by Alvarez-León and Ben-Tuvia (1989) excepting H. quoyi. Tables III A, III B and III C compare the species reported in the three studies.

The crustacean bycatch has no commercial value in Colombia, excepting the big head shrimp Heterocarpus spp., which is retained on board only when it become the target species captured by traps at deeper depth. Sierra (1976) reported Pleuroncodes monodon H. Milne Edward 1837, Heterocarpus sp., and Maiopsis sp., coinciding with our reports. Among mollusks reported, the squid L. panamensis has a moderate commercial value in the Colombian fish market as well. The whole species reported until now as catch composition of the deep sea shrimp fishery accounts a total of 85 species identified (73 fish species from 43 families, 11 crustacean species from 11 families, and 1 mollusk species) (Tables III A, III B and III C).

The poor coincidence in the number of species reported in the deep sea shrimp fishery among the studies may be caused by the following factors: (i) Sierra (1976), and Alvarez-León & Ben-Tuvia (1989) analyzed the most frequent species with a real or potential economic value, while this study reported frequent and rare species with or without any commercial value. (ii) The current study reported a variety of species with a wide range of depth distribution, in which many species might be found in shallow waters as well, while the other two studies reported mainly deep sea species. (iii) This study included crustaceans and mollusks as part of the catch composition while the other studies included three crustacean species (two of them up to genera) or only fish as reported above.

No qualitative differences in the catch composition by sampling area were found in this study. However, the purple crab P. iridiscens seemed to be more abundant in the north zone, while the little lobster P. monodon seemed to be more abundant in the central and south zones.

The Colombian bottom trawl fishery vessels are currently using the TED as the only technical adaptation of the fishing gear to reduce the incidental capture of turtles. However the measure wasn't well accepted by the vessel crews, since the TED greatly reduce the volume of commercial bycatch, especially big size fish, which are normally sold to increase their economic income. No other excluder device has been tested so far in the region. In countries like Australia, Germany and Japan, different mesh sizes, coden shapes, TEDs and bycatch reduction devices (BRDs) have been tested in order to reduce the bycatch captures (Wienbeck 1998-1999; Kenelly 1999; Robins et al. 1999; Broadhurst 2000; Matsushita 2000).

Table III a: Comparison of the deep sea shrimp catch composition fish species in three studies.

= present in one study; x = present in two studies; o = present in all.

Tabla III a: Comparación de la composición de la captura del camarón de aguas profundas en tres estudios realizados.

* = presente en un estudio, x = presente en dos estudios, o = presente en todos.

 

Table III b: Comparison of the deep sea shrimp catch composition fish species in three studies.

* = present in one study; x = present in two studies; o = present in all. (Continuation).

Tabla III b: Comparación de la composición de la captura del camarón de aguas profundas en tres estudios realizados.

* = presente en un estudio, x = presente en dos estudios, o = presente en todos. (Continuación).



Table III c: Comparison of the deep sea shrimp catch composition fish species in three studies.

* = present in one study; x = present in two studies; o = present in all. (Continuation).

Tabla III c: Comparación de la composición de la captura del camarón de aguas profundas en tres estudios realizados.

* = presente en un estudio, x = presente en dos estudios, o = presente en todos. (Continuación).



There are some bycatch species suitable for human consumption in the deep sea shrimp fishery of the Colombian Pacific Ocean, but its low price in the market, low abundance, or bad physical aspect make for them to be discarded. Further studies are needed to quantify the amount of bycatch retained and discarded, so that an eventual use of the discarded bycatch can be proposed.

The analysis of the deep sea shrimp catch composition in the Colombian Pacific Ocean helped the National Institute for Fisheries and Aquaculture to establish research proposals in some commercial resources such as the hake B. clarkae and the big head shrimp Heterocarpus spp.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We thank the National Institute for Fisheries and Aquaculture of Colombia INPA (Now INCODER as a result of four government institutes) for the financial support framed in the research project "Stock assessment of the deep sea shrimp in the Colombian Pacific Ocean". We also thank Mr. Wilson Niño for his help as the manager of the research project and the fishery companies Agropesquera Industrial Bahia Cupica Ltd. Inpesca Ltd., Frigomarina Ltd., and the captains and crews of the fishing vessels who allowed us to be on board.

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Fecha de recepción: 05.12.05

Fecha de aceptación: 10.03.07

 

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