SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

Home Pagelista alfabética de revistas  

Servicios Personalizados




Links relacionados


Gayana (Concepción)

versión impresa ISSN 0717-652Xversión On-line ISSN 0717-6538

Gayana (Concepc.) v.72 n.1 Concepción jun. 2008 


Gayana 72(1): 102-112, 2008 Review




Julián Monge-Nájera

Biología Tropical, Universidad de Costa Rica, 2060 San José, Costa Rica;,


Ecological biogeography studies the factors that define the spatial distribution of species in the present time. This review summarises recent contributions on ecological biogeography. Most recent articles report environmental factors such as temperature, humidity and salinity as key elements in the ecological biogeography of many species (followed by other organisms and genetic characteristics). Molecular data indicate that some "unexplainable" ranges are artifacts caused by taxonomic misidentification (several species erroneously classified as a single species). Island biogeography theory is often adequate for conservation management, and the new neutral model of ecological biogeography does not fit all species on which it has been tested. Global warming leads to range expansions, dispersal events, and new invasions. Until now, most experimental work has been done on temperate ecosystems. In the 21st century, tropical biogeographers should do landmark contributions by doing field, laboratory and simulation experiments about species ranges and community biogeography.

Keywords: Review, ecological biogeography, temperate versus tropical, global warming.


La biogeografía ecológica estudia los factores que definen la actual distribución espacial de los organismos. Esta revisión resume los aportes más recientes en ese campo. La mayoría de los artículos recientes informan que factores ambientales como temperatura, humedad y salinidad son elementos clave en la biogeografía ecológica de muchas especies (seguidos de interacciones con otros organismos, y características genéticas). La biología molecular está develando que algunas "distribuciones incomprensibles" son en realidad el resultado de identificaciones taxonómicas incorrectas en que varias especies eran consideradas una sola especie. La teoría de biogeografía de islas a menudo es aplicable a la conservación, pero el nuevo modelo neutralista de biogeografía ecológica no calza con algunos de los organismos a los cuales se ha aplicado. El calentamiento planetario probablemente producirá ampliaciones de ámbito, dispersiones y nuevas invasiones. Hasta ahora, la mayoría del trabajo experimental en este campo se ha hecho en ecosistemas templados, por lo que en el siglo XXI, la biogeografía tropical debe hacer contribuciones significativas mediante simulaciones y experimentos de campo y de laboratorio, sobre los ámbitos de distribución geográfica y la biogeografía de comunidades.

Palabras claves: Revisión, biogeografía ecológica, templada versus tropical, calentamiento global.


Biogeography studies the geographic distribution of organisms

Some of the key questions that this branch of biology attempts to answer are: How did organisms reach their current habitats? Why do not they expand their current ranges? Why does an ecosystem have a particular number of species?

Historical biogeography addresses the first question: past causes of organismic distribution, and was reviewed in a previous Gayana article (Monge-Nájera 1999). The other branch, ecological biogeography, studies the factors that define the spatial distribution of species in the present time. These factors are mainly ecological, and include other organisms and genetic characteristics (biotic factors) as well as environmental factors such as temperature, humidity and salinity (abiotic factors). An important recent contribution quantified the role of historical versus ecological biogeographic factors: in Mediterranean rivers, 21% of the distribution of caddisflies is explained by ecological factors, 3% by historical processes, 0.3% by both factors, and the rest is unaccounted for (Bonada et al. 2005).

Recent general papers on biogeography deal with the need for complementary ecological and historical approaches (Wiens & Donoghue 2004, Biswas & Pawar 2006); a general review with emphasis on the Chinese biota (Chen & Song 2005); the interface between taxonomy and biogeography (Williams & Reid 2005), and history (Lyell's view: Bueno-Hernández & Llorente-Bousquets 2006).

This review summarises recent contributions on ecological biogeography, considering the application of island biogeography theory to ecology and conservation, and the application of the new neutral model of ecological biogeography.

Ecological factors that explain organic distribution on land

Until recently, deep ignorance of the number of bacterial species in any single place has prevented work on the ecological biogeography of bacterial communities. The cause of this limitation is that the methods developed in the 19th century, and still in use today, only allow identification of bacteria that can be cultured, and there are no culture methods for most species. New genetic techniques, however, have begun to overcome such limitations, and it is now known, for example, that the only ecological variable that clearly correlates with bacterial distribution on soils worldwide is pH (Fierer & Jackson 2006). The idea that bacteria show no biogeographic patterns has been rejected on the basis of soil bacteria distribution in México, where, furthermore, the number of individuals per species can be graphically described by a hollow curve, just like in vertebrate communities (Noguez et al. 2005).

Strains from decaying wood in Veracruz, México, have evolved substrate selectivity: in this case, the direct ecological limitation to their spatial distribution is the availability of proper substrates (Pinzón-Picaseno & Ruiz-RodrÍguez 2004).

The abiotic factors that define the ecological biogeography of plants on land, have been shown to be climate in the case in the vegetation of the Tibetan Plateau (Chen et al. 2005) and the Australian Euphorbiaceae (Hunter 2005); and soil characteristics for the grassland communities of Europe (Dengler 2005) and the Aizoaceae "stone plants" of South Africa (Ellis et al. 2006). Two important biotic factors are dispersal and predation. Dispersal ability explains the ranges and abundance of forest plants in Panamá (Chust et al. 2006) and of rice (Oryza) in Southeast Asia and New Guinea (Vaughan et al. 2005). The presence of grazers defines the spatial distribution of grassland species (Tallowin et al. 2005), and herbivory by deer defines the metapopulation ecology of plants on the Florida Keys (Barrett & Stiling 2006).

Invertebrate distribution can be explained by a combination of abiotic and biotic factors. In some groups, like subterranean crustaceans, temperature is an overriding factor (Issartel et al. 2005). In others, single biotic factors explain most of their distribution, for example, the chemical exclusions of other parasites in Rickettsiaceae (Kocan et al. 2004), predation in soil mites (Ruf & Beck 2005) and phylogenetic constraints in New Zealand land snails (Barker 2005). Finally, for most species, a larger combination of factors explains their ecological biogeography (e.g. Vargas et al. 2004).

There are several recent contributions about abiotic factors defining vertebrate ranges. Moisture and temperature define the ranges of Plethodontidae ("lungless") salamanders (Marshall & Camp 2006), and also defined the ranges of Saurischian and Ornithopod dinosaurs in East Asia (Matsukawa & Lockley 2006). Other key abiotic factors are water, for the lizard Uma inornata in California (Chen et al. 2006); longitude, for birds in the North American riparian habitats (Skagen et al. 2005); light, for Tropical forest birds in Panamá (Berg et al. 2006), and temperature for Madagascan lemurs (Lehman et al. 2006). Like in other groups, overriding biotic factors are less frequently cited, but examples include birds (wood warblers in North America) and dwarf chameleons in South Africa, whose spatial distribution is clearly defined by vegetation (Kelly & Hutto 2005, Tolley et al. 2006).

Ecological factors that explain organic distribution in aquatic habitats

In freshwater ecosystems, water level and tempe-rature often affect organismic distributions. The recent increase in temperature has allowed nonindigenous and invasive water plants to expand their ranges in Sweden (Larson 2006). In Mediterranean rivers, 21% of the distribution of caddisflies is explained by a combination of ecological factors (Bonada et al. 2005). Wetland bird distribution in Canadá is strongly defined by the water level (Desgranges et al. 2006), and temperature draws the limits for the range of Trachemys scripta turtles (Willette et al. 2005).

The sea is probably the biome where the ecological biogeography of organisms has been more intensively studied. Maybe the reason is that, in comparison with forests and other terrestrial ecosystems, the ocean is a physically simpler medium. Abiotic factors known to define organismic regions in the ocean are temperature, substrate, currents, light and nutrients, among others. For example, temperature explains the distribution of fish larvae in Jalisco, Mexico (Navarro-Rodríguez et al. 2004); Archaeobacteria in North America and Crimea (Knittel et al. 2005); seabirds in the Pacific (Smith & Hyrenbach 2003); sea stars in the Gulf of California (Cintra-Buenrostro et al. 2005); dinoflagellates cysts in the Artic (Matthiessen et al. 2005); coccolithophores worldwide (Baumann et al. 2005) and red tide precursor organisms in the Pacific (Sierra-Beltrán et al. 2004).

Substrate characteristics define the distribution of gastropods in Britain (Grahame et al. 2006); polychaetes in Canada (Quijon & Snelgrove 2005); echinoderms in Colombia (Neira & Cantera 2005) and chondricthyan fish in Britain (Ellis et al. 2005). Japanese ostracods match ocean currents in their distribution (Ogoh & Ohmiya 2005), and the same is true for sponges worldwide (Woerheide et al. 2005), and for bacterioplankton and nutrients in the Baltic Sea (Sipura et al. 2005).

An important biotic factor is food, for sea-birds in Beringia (Piatt & Springer 2003), sea-stars in the Gulf of California (Cintra-Buenrostro et al. 2005) and tintinnids in the Mediterranean (Krsinic & Grbec 2006). In the case of Indian Ocean Holothuroids, ranges correlate with dispersal ability (Samyn & Tallon 2005), and in South African ascidians, the correlation is with sociality (Primo & Vázquez 2004).

In contrast with the above examples, no abiotic or biotic factors have been found to explain the ecological biogeography of hydrothermal vent communities in the Pacific (Govenar et al. 2005).

Examples of geographic ranges reconsidered after molecular analysis

Molecular techniques are now frequently used to understand the ecological biogeography of all groups of organisms, and have shown that taxonomic misidentification originated some cases of unexplainable distributional ranges, for example in Alopiinae snails, whose distribution fits genetics, not morphology (De Weerd et al. 2004). Unexplainable bird ranges also proved to result from misclassification of convergent taxa in woodpeckers (Moore et al. 2006) and Accipitridae hawks (Do Amaral et al. 2006).

Examples of novel genetic results include the finding that mycorrhizal fungi are not the host generalist, species-poor group that was previously believed (Fitter 2005) and the discovery of the strong host specialization of plant pathogenic fungi in North America (Johnson et al. 2005).

Genetics also show that the range recoveries of some groups, such as the red oaks of the USA, are endangered because recent populations growing on old pasture lands have low genetic diversity (Gerwein & Kesseli 2006). A similar problem affects damselflies in England (Watts et al. 2005), shrews in Tanzania (Stanley & Olson 2005) and prong horn antelopes in the USA (Stephen et al. 2005). In contrast, the ravens of the world appear to be one species with a climate-defined biogeography and large genetic variation (Omland et al. 2006).

Barriers are the defining element of ecological biogeography, and recent genetic work shows that barriers can be ethological in the case of the Artic charr (Adams et al. 2006) and the Mallorcan midwife toad (Kraaijeveld-Smit et al. 2006), but also climatic (for marmots in the USA, Floyd et al. 2005) or topographic (for North American salamanders, Liu et al. 2006).

Genetics are also applied to understand the distribution of freshwater organisms. Physical barriers affect Thioalkalivibrio bacteria worldwide (Foti et al. 2006), and several fish species: the bass in the USA (Cooke & Philipp 2006), sardines in Brazil (Paiva et al. 2006), the Atlantic Salmon in Russia (Primmer et al. 2006) and Australian Leiopotherapon fish (Bostock et al. 2006). On the other hand, a gene pool analysis of brown trout found that introduced individuals, which had a particular genetic constitution, failed to significantly establish in lake Tinnsjo, Norway, even though the lake is within the range of the species (Heggenes et al. 2006). In the Japanese and Korean sections of its range, the bluegill sunfish population is characterized by a much reduced genetic variability that may represent a bottleneck effect (Kawamura et al. 2006). In the case of the Pearly Mussel in the USA, no isolation by distance has been found (Grobler et al. 2006).

On marine ecosystems, genetics have shown that ranges can be defined by both abiotic and biotic barriers. Abiotic barriers were identified in English snails, for which a cliff acts as the barrier (Grahame et al. 2006), and for Pacific snails (Meyer et al. 2005). Mussels in the Indian Ridge and the Atlantic Ridge are limited spatially by endosymbiosis (McKiness & Cavanaugh 2005); and again, as in vertebrates, strange ranges may also represent taxonomical misidentifications, for example in Atlantic amphipods (Kelly et al. 2006). In other cases, traditionally recognized "barriers" such as the East Pacific Barrier and the Bahamas barrier do not significantly impair gene flow for some fish species (Robertson et al. 2004, Taylor & Hellberg 2006).

Island biogeography

One aspect of ecological biogeography, island biogeography, received much attention at the end of the 20th century, first on theoretical grounds, then on its potential application to the problem of conservation of organisms in "islands of protected nature" in an anthropologically changed world.

The MacArthur and Wilson model of island biogeography (MacArthur & Wilson 1967) was based on common sense principles: islands that are big and close to species sources should have more species, and diversity results from the equilibrium of species addition and extinction. Maybe for that reason, most recent literature reports that such principles hold for real islands. Examples include bacteria and shrubs in Spain (Maestre & Cortina 2005, Reche et al. 2005); diatoms in Antarctica (Van de Vijver et al. 2005); vascular plants in North America (McMaster 2005); calcareous grasslands in Belgium (Bisteau & Mahy 2005); forest and sedge land in Australia (Driscoll 2005); Pinus populations in China (Chiang et al. 2006); land snails in Greece and New Zealand (Barker 2005, Triantis et al. 2005); dung beetles in Namibia (Sole et al. 2005); fish in Hungarian streams (Eros & Grossman 2005); seabirds in Australia (Priddel et al. 2006); birds of prey, in the Mediterranean and Macaronesian Archipelagos (Donazar et al. 2005); birds in Britain and Ireland (Russell et al. 2006), and Howler Monkeys in Venezuela (Feeley & Terborgh 2006). By contrast, the model could not explain the island biogeography of Australasian land snails, possibly because it neglects in situ speciation (Cameron et al. 2005), and forest-savanna mosaics in Africa (Hovestadt et al. 2005).

General recent developments in island biogeography refer to the "z" index, curvilinear pattern, life history and leaf lifespan. Low "z" values correlate with high colonization ability; a multi-species metapopulation model indicated that the relationship of "z" with important parameters can be predicted only if either the dispersal ability or the power of establishment is known (Hovestadt & Poethke 2005). He et al. (2005) presented a new model for local-regional species richness in ecological islands that does not require species interactions to produce the curvilinear pattern. Using island biogeography theory, they found that a high extinction rate produces a curvilinear pattern of local-region relationships, while a high colonization rate produces a linear pattern. Equilibrium models need to consider life history traits, because one island can be in equilibrium and have barriers for one organism, but not for others (Shepherd & Brantley 2005). Finally, it has been stated that better biogeography models for vegetation should include leaf lifespan (Zhang & Luo 2004).

Island Biogeography and Conservation

Island biogeography is often applied in conservation for hypothesis testing, finding ways for wildlife-human coexistence, and prediction.

A long term (40 years) study in Japan found that biodiversity in "islands of habitat" in a matrix of "non-habitat" can be summarized with the phi-coefficient, which has the advantage, over other indices, that it can be combined with the Chi-square test to statistically test hypotheses (Yasuda et al. 2005).

Regarding coexistence, urban water reservoirs can conserve the bulk of tropical molluscan biota in Southeast Asia, especially when the pH is near 7.3 and the habitat includes rocks (Clements et al. 2006).

Ecologically managed agri-environments ("agri-environment schemes") help the biota adapt to climate change, and slow the spread of alien and invasive species (Donald & Evans 2006). Similarly, a limited extraction of trees from African evergreen forests benefits understorey bird diversity and has little effect on canopy birds (Holbech 2005). A theoretical framework is now available to apply island biogeography models to temporary wetlands and their biota under anthropogenic stress (Angeler & Alvarez-Cobelas 2005).

The island biogeography model predicts 80% of butterfly fish biodiversity in 48 islands of the Western and central Pacific (Kulbicki et al. 2005), while regional heterogeneity and compositional turnover can predict the number of protected areas necessary to protect mammals in Canadian ecoregions (Wiersma & Urban 2005). However, the model failed when patch size and isolation were used to predict understorey plant restoration success in a highly fragmented riparian landscape of California (Holl & Crone 2004).

The impact of species introductions is also studied by island biogeography. The introduction of Artic foxes for fur production in the Aleutian and Kurile islands greatly decreased the population of Whiskered Auklets from the 1700's to 1900's. Foxes began to be eradicated after 1948, and these birds have now recovered (Williams et al. 2003). Island biogeography can also be successfully combined with molecular analysis and conservation, as when DNA analysis showed that Asian badgers are closely related to the endangered population in Crete Island, so that they can be used for a reintroduction program (Marmi et al. 2006).

Hosts can also be considered islands, colonized by parasites. For example, protozoans use two zones of an octopus digestive tract and develop different life history strategies in each (Ibáñez et al. 2005). Mexican freshwater fish parasites conform to the historical and ecological biogeography of their hosts, both taxonomically and biogeographically (Pérez-Ponce de León & Choudhury 2005). Parasites of five Goby Fish species from the Baltic sea studied by a combination of island biogeography theory, and the "theory of screens", show that colonization by parasites has three types of "distance" to the island-hosts: genetic, phylogenetic and ecological (Zander 2005). The composition of parasitic species in fish and mammalian hosts, suggests that parasitisation follows predictions from the island biogeography model (e.g. larger hosts have more parasite species) and from epidemiological theory (e.g. parasite transmission increases with host density) (Poulin 2004).

Plants can also be considered islands to be reached by herbivores, but only herbivores that can recognize a host whilst in flight, align on patches of vegetation according to island biogeography models (Bukovinszky et al. 2005).

The neutral theory of ecological biogeography

The neutral model of ecological biogeography is an outstanding and controversial point of 21st century biogeography. It was presented in book length by Hubbell (2001).

The neutral model is a good null hypothesis to explain fires in natural habitats, which are basically stochastic processes. Real data show that topography, fuel, and other factors, affect natural fires (McKenzie et al. 2006). The model also predicts genetic diversity in the annual plant complex "Mercurialis annua", in which monoecy predominates over other reproductive options when colonization is frequent (Obbard et al. 2006). A neutral model was also used to develop a formula for the joint likelihood of observing a given species abundance dataset in a local community with dispersal limitation (Etienne 2005).

The model has failed to predict community structure in many cases. These include aquatic invertebrates in rock pools monitored over a 13-year period (Fuller et al. 2005); Indo-Pacific coral communities (Domelas et al. 2006); experimental grassland communities (Harpole & Tilman 2006), herbaceous plants on serpentine soil (Harrison et al. 2006), perennial grass and shrubs in a semiarid habitat (Armas & Pugnaire 2005), shifting mosaic habitats (Wimberly 2006) and dispersal-limited communities (Etienne & Alonso 2005).

Nevertheless, both neutral and non-neutral expla-nations fit data for marine diatoms (Pueyo 2006), some trees in tropical forests (Volkov et al. 2005), rotifers (Beres et al. 2005), and stream invertebrates (Thompson & Townsend 2006). Gravel et al. (2006) believe that traditional and neutral models are extremes of a continuum: when niche and competitive exclusion are important, non neutral theory applies. When immigration plays an important role in the community, there is stochastic species exclusion and the neutral model applies.

The future of ecological biogeography: global warming and conservation

Global warming and its effects on organisms is a key subject at the time of writing this review. Climatic change is a constant of the planet's history, and the past holds the key to understanding the effects of future climate change. The ecological biogeography of fossil crustaceans indicates that a Devonian global warming led to sea-level rises, resulting in range expansions, dispersal events, and species invasions. Simultaneously, opportunities for vicariant speciation were reduced (Rode & Lieberman 2005). The same could be true for marine species in a currently warming Earth. Nonindigenous and invasive water plants from warm habitats are expected to expand their ranges in temperate areas (Larson 2006); and on land, some barriers will disappear (Floyd et al. 2005), specially because range edges may not be physiologically more stressful, as previously believed (Sagarin & Somero 2006).

The latest available studies indicate that, on the basis of a sample composed of 1198 species, the minimum viable population size is 1377 individuals (90% probability of persistence over 100 years) and persistence is more related to habitat than to species characteristics (Brook et al. 2006). To prevent the effects of climatic change, Cardillo et al. (2006) studied 4000 mammal species and used ecological theory to predict sites where they will need protection in the future, allowing early protection measures.


I want to finish this review by stating that ecological biogeography is now mature enough for intensive experimentation (Pennings & Silliman 2005). Until now, most experimental work has been done on temperate ecosystems. In the 21st century, tropical biogeographers should do landmark contributions by doing field, laboratory and simulation experiments about species ranges and community biogeography. I hope that this review inspires you to stop reading and do your first experiment on ecological biogeography.


I thank Andrés Angulo for the invitation to write this review. Mónica Chaves helped with the library research.


Adams, C.E., D.J. Hamilton, I. McCarthy, A. Wilson, A. Grant, G. Alexander, S. Waldron, S. Snorasson, M.M. Ferguson & S. Skulason. 2006. Does breeding site fidelity drive phenotypic and genetic sub-structuring of a population of arctic charr? Evolutionary Ecology 20: 11-26.         [ Links ]

Angeler, D.G. & M. Alvarez-Cobelas. 2005. Island biogeography and landscape structure: Integrating ecological concepts in a landscape perspective of anthropogenic impacts in temporary wetlands. Environmental Pollution 138 (3): 420-424.         [ Links ]

Armas, C. & F.I. Pugnaire. 2005. Plant interactions govern population dynamics in a semi-arid plant community. Journal of Ecology 5: 978-989.         [ Links ]

Barker, G.M. 2005. The character of the New Zealand land snail fauna and communities: some evolutionary and ecological perspectives. Records of the Western Australian Museum (Suppl. 68): 53-102.         [ Links ]

Barrett, M.A. & P. Stiling. 2006. Effects of key deer herbivory on forest communities in the lower Florida Keys. Biological Conservation 129: 100-108.         [ Links ]

Baumann, K.H., H. Andruleit, B. Boeckel, M. Geisen & H. Kinkel. 2005. The significance of extant coccolithophores as indicators of ocean water masses, surface water temperature, and palaeoproductivity: a review. Palaeontologische Zeitschrift 79 (1): 93-112.         [ Links ]

Beres, K.A., R.L. Wallace & H.H. Segers. 2005. Rotifers and Hubbell's unified neutral theory of biodiversity and biogeography. Natural Resource Modeling 18 (3): 363-376.         [ Links ]

Berg, K.S., R.T. Brumfield & V. Apanius. 2006. Phylogenetic and ecological determinants of the neotropical dawn chorus. Proceedings of the Royal Society Biological Sciences Series B 273: 999-1005.         [ Links ]

Bisteau, E. & G. Mahy. 2005. A landscape approach for the study of calcareous grassland plant communities. Biotechnologie Agronomie Societe et Environnement 9 (2): 93-99.         [ Links ]

Biswas, S. & S. Pawar. 2006. Phylogenetic tests of distribution patterns in South Asia: towards an integrative approach. Journal of Biosciences 31 (1): 95-113.         [ Links ]

Bonada, N., C. Zamora, M. RieradeVall & N. Prat. 2005. Ecological and historical filters constraining spatial caddisfly distribution in Mediterranean rivers. Freshwater Biology 50 (5): 781-797.         [ Links ]

Bostock, B.M., M. Adams, L.J. Laurenson & C.M. Austin. 2006. The molecular systematics of Leiopotherapon unicolor (Gunther, 1859): testing for cryptic speciation in Australia's most widespread freshwater fish. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 87 (4): 537-552.         [ Links ]

Brook, B.W., L.W. Traill & C.J. Bradshaw. 2006. Minimum viable population sizes and global extinction risk are unrelated. Ecology Letters 9 (4): 375-382.         [ Links ]

Bueno, A. & J. Llorente. 2006. The other face of Lyell: historical biogeography in his Principles of geology. Journal of Biogeography 33 (4): 549-559.         [ Links ]

Bukovinszky, T., R.P.J. Potting, Y. Clough, J.C. Van Lenteren & L.E.M. Vet. 2005. The role of pre- and post-alighting detection mechanisms in the responses to patch size by specialist herbivores. Oikos 109 (3): 435-446.         [ Links ]

Cameron, R.A., B.M. Pokryszko & F.E. Wells. 2005. Alan Solem's work on the diversity of Australasian land snails: an unfinished project of global significance. Records of the Western Australian Museum (Suppl. 68): 1-10.         [ Links ]

Cardillo, M., G.M. Mace, J.L. Gittleman & A. Purvis. 2006. Latent extinction risk and the future battlegrounds of mammal conservation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103: 4157-4161.         [ Links ]

Chen, L. & Y.L. Song. 2005. Theory and its development of biogeography. Chinese Journal of Zoology 40 (4): 111-120.         [ Links ]

Chen, X., C. Barrows & B.L. Li. 2006. Is the Coachella Valley fringe-toed lizard (Uma inornata) on the edge of extinction at Thousand Palms Preserve in California? Southwestern Naturalist 51 (1): 28-34.         [ Links ]

Chen, X., X.S. Zhang & B. Li. 2005. Influence of Tibetan Plateau on vegetation distributions in East Asia: a modeling perspective. Ecological Modelling 181 (1): 79-86.         [ Links ]

Chiang, Y.C., H.H. Hung, B.A. Schaal, X.J. Ge, T.W. Hsu & T.Y. Chiang. 2006. Contrasting phylogeographical patterns between mainland and island taxa of the Pinus luchuensis complex. Molecular Ecology 15 (3): 765-779.         [ Links ]

Chust, G., J. Chave, R. Condit, S. Aguilar, S. Lao & R. Pérez. 2006. Determinants and spatial modelling of tree beta-diversity in a tropical forest landscape in Panama. Journal of Vegetation Science 17 (1): 83-92.         [ Links ]

Cintra-Buenrostro, C.E., H. Reyes-Bonilla & M.D. Herrero-Perezrul. 2005. Oceanographic conditions and diversity of sea stars (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) in the Gulf of California, México. Revista de Biología Tropical 53: 245-261.         [ Links ]

Clements, R., L. Koh, T. Lee, R. Meier & D. Li. 2006. Importance of reservoirs for the conservation of freshwater molluscs in a tropical urban landscape. Biological Conservation: 136-146.         [ Links ]

Cooke, S. & D. Philipp. 2006. Hybridization among divergent stocks of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) results in altered cardiovascular performance: The influence of genetic and geographic distance. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 79: 400-410.         [ Links ]

De Weerd, D.R., W.H. Piel & E. Gittenberg. 2004. Widespread polyphyly among Aloplinae snail genera: when phylogeny mirrors biogeography more closely than morphology. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 33 (3): 533-548.         [ Links ]

Dengler, J. 2005. From Estonia to Portugal - Common properties and differences of phytodiversity patterns in dry grassland communities of Europe. Tuexenia (25): 387-405.         [ Links ]

Desgranges, J.L., J. Ingram, B. Drolet, J. Morin, C. Savage & D. Borcard. 2006. Modelling wetland bird response to water level changes in the Lake Ontario-St. Lawrence River hydrosystem. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 113: 329-365.         [ Links ]

Do Amaral, F.S., M.J. Miller, L.F. Silveira, E. Bermingham & A. Wajntal. 2006. Polyphyly of the hawk genera Leucopternis and Buteogallus (Aves, Accipitridae): multiple habitat shifts during the Neotropical buteonine diversification. BMC Evolutionary Biology 6: 1471-2148.         [ Links ]

Domelas, M., S.R. Connolly & T.P. Hughes. 2006. Coral reef diversity refutes the neutral theory of biodiversity. Nature (London) 6 (2): 229-240.         [ Links ]

Donald, P.F. & A.D. Evans. 2006. Habitat connectivity and matrix restoration: the wider implications of agri-environment schemes. Journal of Applied Ecology 43 (2): 209-218.         [ Links ]

Donazar, J.A., L. Gangoso, M.G. Forero & J. Juste. 2005. Presence, richness and extinction of birds of prey in the Mediterranean and Macaronesian islands. Journal of Biogeography 32 (10): 1701-1713.         [ Links ]

Driscoll, D.A. 2005. Is the matrix a sea? Habitat specificity in a naturally fragmented landscape. Ecological Entomology 30 (1): 8-16.         [ Links ]

Ellis, J.R., A. Cruz-Martínez, B.D. Rackham & S.I. Rogers. 2005. The distribution of chondrichthyan fishes around the British Isles and implications for conservation. Journal of Northwest Atlantic Fishery Science 35: 195-213.         [ Links ]

Ellis, A., A. Weis & B. Gaut. 2006. Evolutionary radiation of "stone plants" in the genus Argyroderma (Aizoaceae): Unraveling the effects of landscape, habitat, and flowering. Evolution 60 (1): 39-55.         [ Links ]

Eros, T. & G.D. Grossman. 2005. Fish biodiversity in two Hungarian streams: a landscape-based approach. Archiv fuer Hydrobiologie 162 (1): 53-71.         [ Links ]

Etienne, R.S. 2005. A new sampling formula for neutral biodiversity. Ecology Letters 8 (3): 253-260.         [ Links ]

Etienne, R.S. & D. Alonso. 2005. A dispersal-limited sampling theory for species and alleles. Ecology Letters 8 (11): 1147-1156.         [ Links ]

Feeley, K.J. & J.W. Terborgh. 2006. Habitat fragmentation and effects of herbivore (howler monkey) abundances on bird species richness. Ecology (Washington DC) 87: 144-150.         [ Links ]

Fierer, N. & R. Jackson. 2006. The diversity and biogeography of soil bacterial communities. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 113 (3): 626-631.         [ Links ]

Fitter, A.H. 2005. Darkness visible: reflections on underground ecology. Journal of Ecology 93 (2): 231-243.         [ Links ]

Floyd, C.H., D.H. Van Vuren & B. May. 2005. Marmots on Great Basin mountaintops: Using genetics to test a biogeographic paradigm. Ecology (Washington DC) 86 (8): 2145-2153.         [ Links ]

Foti, M., M. Shengbin, D. Sorokin, J.L. Rademaker, J.G. Kuenen & G. Muyzer. 2006. Genetic diversity and biogeography of haloalkaliphilic sulphur-oxidizing bacteria belonging to the genus Thioalkalivibrio. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 56 (1): 95-101.         [ Links ]

Fuller, M.M., T.N. Romanuk & J. Kolasa. 2005. Effects of predation and variation in species relative abundance on the parameters of neutral models. Community Ecology 6 (2): 229-240.         [ Links ]

Gerwein, J.B. & R.V. Kesseli. 2006. Genetic diversity and population structure of Quercus rubra (Fagaceae) in old-growth and secondary forests in southern New England. Rhodora 108 (93): 1-18.         [ Links ]

Govenar, B., N. Le Bris, S. Gollner, J. Glanville, A. Aperghis, S. Hourdez & C. Fisher. 2005. Epifaunal community structure associated with Riftia pachyptila aggregations in chemically different hydrothermal vent habitats. Marine Ecology Progress Series 305: 67-77.         [ Links ]

Grahame, J., C. Wilding & R. Butlin. 2006. Adaptation to a steep environmental gradient and an associated barrier to gene exchange in Littorina saxatilis. Evolution 60 (2): 268-278.         [ Links ]

Gravel, D., C.D. Canham, M. Beaudet & C. Messier. 2006. Reconciling niche and neutrality: the continuum hypothesis. Ecology Letters 9 (4): 399-409.         [ Links ]

Grobler, P., J. Jones, N. Jonson, B. Beaty, J. Struthers, R. Neves & E. Hallerman. 2006. Patterns of genetic differentiation and conservation of the slabside pearlymussel, Lexingtonia dolabelloides (Lea, 1840) in the Tennessee River drainage. Journal of Molluscan Studies 72 (1): 65-75.         [ Links ]

Harpole, W. & D. Tilman. 2006. Non-neutral patterns of species abundance in grassland communities. Ecology Letters 9 (1): 15-23.         [ Links ]

Harrison, S., K.F. Davies, H.D. Safford & J.H. Viers. 2006. Beta diversity and the scale-dependence of the productivity-diversity relationship: a test in the Californian serpentine flora. Journal of Ecology 94 (1): 110-117.         [ Links ]

He, F., K J. Gaston, E.E. Connor & D.S. Srivastava. 2005. The local-regional relationship: Immigration, extinction, and scale. Ecology (Washington DC) 86 (2): 360-365.         [ Links ]

Heggenes, J., O. Skaala, R. Borgstrom & O.T. Igland. 2006. Minimal gene flow from introduced brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) after 30 years of stocking. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 22 (2): 119-124.         [ Links ]

Holbech, L.H. 2005. The implications of selective logging and forest fragmentation for the conservation of avian diversity in evergreen forests of south-west Ghana. Bird Conservation International 15 (1): 27-52.         [ Links ]

Holl, K.D. & E.E. Crone. 2004. Applicability of landscape and island biogeography theory to restoration of riparian understorey plants. Journal of Applied Ecology 41 (5): 922-933.         [ Links ]

Hovestadt, T. & H.J. Poethke. 2005. Dispersal and establishment: spatial patterns and species-area relationships. Diversity and Distributions 11 (4): 333-340.         [ Links ]

Hovestadt, T., H.J. Poethke & K.E. Linsenmair. 2005. Spatial patterns in species-area relationships and species distribution in a West African forest-savanna mosaic. Journal of Biogeography 32 (4): 677-684.         [ Links ]

Hubbell, S.P. 2001. The Unified Neutral Theory of Biodiversity and Biogeography, Princeton University Press, New Jersey, USA. 375 p.         [ Links ]

Hunter, J. 2005. Phytogeography, range size and richness of Australian endemic Sauropus (Euphorbiaceae). Journal of Biogeography 32 (1): 63-73.         [ Links ]

Ibáñez, C.M., M.C. Pardo-Gandarillas & M. George-Nascimento. 2005. Microhabitat use by the protozoan parasite Aggregata patagonica Sardella, Ré & Timi, 2000 (Apicomplexa: Aggregatidae) in his definitive host Enteroctopus megalocyathus (Gould, 1852) (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae) in southern Chile. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 78 (3): 441-450.         [ Links ]

Issartel, J., D. Renault, Y. Voituron, A. Bouchereau, P. Vermon & F. Hervant. 2005. Metabolic responses to cold in subterranean crustaceans. Journal of Experimental Biology 208 (15): 2923-2929.         [ Links ]

Johnson, J.A., T.C. Harrington & C.J.B. Engelbrecht. 2005. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the North American clade of the Ceratocystis fimbriata complex. Mycologia 97 (5): 1067-1092.         [ Links ]

Kawamura, K., R. Yonekura, O. Katano, Y. Taniguchi & K. Saitoh. 2006. Origin and dispersal of bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus, in Japan and Korea. Molecular Ecology 15 (3): 613-621.         [ Links ]

Kelly, D.W., H.J. Maclsaac & D.D. Heath. 2006. Vicariance and dispersal effects on phylogeographic structure and speciation in a widespread estuarine invertebrate. Evolution 60 (2): 257-267.         [ Links ]

Kelly, J.F. & R.L. Hutto. 2005. An east-west comparison of migration in North American wood warblers. Condor 107 (2): 197-211.         [ Links ]

Knittel, K., T. Loesekann, A. Boetius, R. Kort & R. Amann. 2005. Diversity and distribution of methanotrophic archaea at cold seeps. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 71 (1): 467-479.         [ Links ]

Kocan, K.M., J. de la Fuente, E.F. Blouin & C. García. 2004. Anaplasma marginale (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae): recent advances in defining host-pathogen adaptations of a tick-borne rickettsia. Parasitology 129 (Suppl. S): S285-S300.         [ Links ]

Kraaijeveld-Smit, F.J., R.A. Griffiths, R.D. Moore & T.J. Beebee. 2006. Captive breeding and the fitness of reintroduced species: a test of the responses to predators in a threatened amphibian. Journal of Applied Ecology 43 (2): 360-365.         [ Links ]

Krsinic, F. & B. Grbec. 2006. Horizontal distribution of tintinnids in the open waters of the South Adriatic (Eastern Mediterranean). Scientia Marina 70 (1): 77-88.         [ Links ]

Kulbicki, M., Y.M. Bozec & A. Green. 2005. Implications of biogeography in the use of butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae) as indicators for Western and Central Pacific areas. Aquatic Conservation 15 (Suppl. 1): S109-S126.         [ Links ]

Larson, D.W. 2006. Nonindigenous and invasive water plants in Sweden. Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift 100 (1): 5-15.         [ Links ]

Lehman, S., A. Rajaonson & S.Day. 2006. Lemur responses to edge effects in the Vohibola III Classified Forest, Madagascar. American Journal of Primatology 68 (3): 293-299.         [ Links ]

Liu, F.G., P.E. Moler & M.M. Miyamoto. 2006. Phylogeography of the salamander genus Pseudobranchus in the southeastern United States. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 39 (1): 149-59.         [ Links ]

MaCarthur, R.H. & E.O. Wilson. 1967. The Theory of Island Biogeography. Princeton University Press, New Jersey, USA. 203 p.         [ Links ]

Maestre, F.T. & J. Cortina. 2005. Remnant shrubs in Mediterranean semi-arid steppes: effects of shrub size, abiotic factors and species identity on understorey richness and occurrence. Acta Oecologica 27 (3): 161-169.         [ Links ]

Marmi, J., F. López-Giraldez, D.W. Macdonald, F. Calafell, E. Zholnerovskaya & X. Domingo-Roura. 2006. Mitochondrial DNA reveals a strong phylogeographic structure in the badger across Eurasia. Molecular Ecology 15 (4): 1007-1020.         [ Links ]

Marshall, J. & C. Camp. 2006. Environmental correlates of species and genetic richness in lungless salamanders (Family Plethodontidae). Acta Oecologica 29 (1): 33-44.         [ Links ]

Matsukawa, M. & M. Lockley. 2006. Cretaceous terrestrial biotas of East Asia, with special reference to dinosaur-dominated ichnofaunas: towards a synthesis. Cretaceous Research 27 (1): 3-21.         [ Links ]

Matthiessen, J., A. De Vernal, M. Head, Y. Okolodkov, K. Zonneveld & R. Harland. 2005. Modern organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts in Arctic marine environments and their (paleo-) environmental significance. Palaeontologische Zeitschrift 79 (1): 3-51.         [ Links ]

McKenzie, D., A.E. Hessl & L.K.B. Kellogg. 2006. Using neutral models to identify constraints on low-severity fire regimes. Landscape Ecology 21: 139-152.         [ Links ]

McKiness, Z.P. & C.M. Cavanaugh. 2005. The ubiquitous mussel: Bathymodiolus aff. brevior symbiosis at the Central Indian Ridge hydrothermal vents. Marine Ecology Progress Series 295: 183-190.         [ Links ]

McMaster, R.T. 2005. Factors influencing vascular plant diversity on 22 islands off the coast of eastern North America. Journal of Biogeography 32 (3): 475-492.         [ Links ]

Meyer, C.P., J.B. Geller & G. Paulay. 2005. Fine scale endemism on coral reefs: Archipelagic differentiation in turbinid gastropods. Evolution 59 (1): 113-125.         [ Links ]

Monge-Nájera, J. 1999. Historical biogeography: Status and goals for the 21st. century. Gayana 63 (2): 165-170.         [ Links ]

Moore, W.S., A.C. Weibel & A. Agius. 2006. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeny of the woodpecker genus Veniliornis (Picidae, Picinae) and related genera implies convergent evolution of plumage patterns. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 87 (4): 611-624.         [ Links ]

Navarro-Rodriguez, M., R. Flores-Vargas, L.F. Guevara & M.E. Ruelas. 2004. Distribution and abundance of Dormitator latifroms (Richardson) larvae (Pisces: Eliotridae) in the natural protected area "estero El Salado" in Jalisco, México. Revista de Biologia Marina y Oceanografia 39 (1): 31-36.         [ Links ]

Neira, R. & J.R. Cantera. 2005. Taxonomic composition and distribution of the echinoderms associations in the littoral ecosystems from the Colombian Pacific. Revista de Biología Tropical 53 (3): 195-206.         [ Links ]

Noguez, A., H. Arita, A. Escalante, L. Forney, F. Garcia-Oliva & V. Souza. 2005. Microbial macroecology: highly structured prokaryotic soil assemblages in a tropical deciduous forest. Global Ecology and Biogeography 14 (3): 241-248.         [ Links ]

Obbard, D., S. Harris & J. Pannell. 2006. Sexual systems and population genetic structure in an annual plant: Testing the metapopulation model. American Naturalist 167 (3): 354-366.         [ Links ]

Ogoh, K. & Y. Ohmiya. 2005. Biogeography of luminous marine ostracod driven irreversibly by the japan. Current Molecular Biology and Evolution 22 (7): 1543-1545.         [ Links ]

Omland, K.E., J.M. Baker & J.L. Peters. 2006. Genetic signatures of intermediate divergence: population history of Old and New World Holarctic ravens (Corvus corax). Molecular Ecology 15 (3): 795-808.         [ Links ]

Paiva, S., J. Dergam & F. Machado. 2006. Determining management units in southeastern Brazil: the case of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Characidae). Hydrobiologia 560: 393-404.         [ Links ]

Pennings, S.C. & B.R. Silliman. 2005. Linking biogeography and community ecology: Latitudinal variation in plant-herbivore interaction strength. Ecology (Washington DC) 86 (9): 2310-2319.         [ Links ]

Pérez-Ponce de León, G. & A. Choudhury. 2005. Biogeography of helminth parasites of freshwater fishes in Mexico: the search for patterns and processes. Journal of Biogeography 32 (4): 645-659.         [ Links ]

Piatt, J.F. & A.M. Springer. 2003. Advection, pelagic food webs and the biogeography of seabirds in Beringia. Marine Ornithology 31 (2): 141-154.         [ Links ]

Pinzón-Picaseno, L. & M. Ruiz-Rodríguez. 2004. Rot-type verification tests and substrate selectivity of 15 polypore wood-decaying fungi from Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, México. Revista Mexicana de Micology 18: 47-59.         [ Links ]

Poulin, R. 2004. Macroecological patterns of species richness in parasite assemblages. Basic and Applied Ecology 5 (5): 423-434.         [ Links ]

Pridell, D., N. Carlile, P. Fullagar, I. Hutton & L. O'Neill. 2006. Decline in the distribution and abundance of flesh-footed shearwaters (Puffinus carneipes) on Lord Howe Island, Australia. Biological Conservation 128 (3): 412-424.         [ Links ]

Primmer, C.R., A.J. Veselov, A. Zubchenko, A. Poututkin, I. Bakhmet & M.T. Koskinen. 2006. Isolation by distance within a river system: genetic population structuring of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, in tributaries of the Varzuga River in northwest Russia. Molecular Ecology 15 (3): 653-666.         [ Links ]

Primo, C. & E. Vázquez. 2004. Zoogeography of the southern African ascidian fauna. Journal of Biogeography 31 (12): 1987-2009.         [ Links ]

Pueyo, S. 2006. Diversity: between neutrality and structure. Oikos 112 (2): 392-405.         [ Links ]

Quijon, P.A. & P.V.R. Snelgrove. 2005. Polychaete assemblages of a sub-arctic Newfoundland fjord: habitat, distribution, and identification. Polar Biology 28 (7): 495-505.         [ Links ]

Reche, I., E. Pulido-Villena, R. Morales-Baquero & E.O. Casamayor. 2005. Does ecosystem size determine aquatic bacterial richness? Ecology (Washington-DC) 86 (7): 1715-1722.         [ Links ]

Robertson, D.R., J.S. Grove & J.E. McCosker. 2004. Tropical transpacific shore fishes. Pacific Science 58 (4): 507-565.         [ Links ]

Rode, A.L.S. & B.S. Lieberman. 2005. Paleobiogeographic patterns in the Middle and Late Devonian emphasizing Laurentia. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 222 (3-4): 272-284.         [ Links ]

Ruf, A. & L. Beck. 2005. The use of predatory soil mites in ecological soil classification and assessment concepts, with perspectives for oribatid mites. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 62 (2): 290-299.         [ Links ]

Russell, G.J., J.M. Diamond, T.M. Reed & S.L. Pimm. 2006. Breeding birds on small islands: island biogeography or optimal foraging? Journal of Animal Ecology 75 (2): 324-339.         [ Links ]

Sagarin, R.D. & G.N. Somero. 2006. Complex patterns of expression of heat-shock protein 70 across the southern biogeographical ranges of the intertidal mussel Mytilus californianus and snail Nucella ostrina. Journal of Biogeography 33 (4): 622-630.         [ Links ]

Samyn, Y. & I. Tallon. 2005. Zoogeography of the shallow-water holothuroids of the western Indian Ocean. Journal of Biogeography 32 (9): 1523-1538.         [ Links ]

Shepherd, U.L. & S.L. Brantley. 2005. Expanding on Watson's framework for classifying patches: when is an island not an island? Journal of Biogeography 32 (6): 951-960.         [ Links ]

Sierra-Beltrán, A.P., D.B. Lluch-Cota, S.E. Lluch-Cota, R. Cortés-Altamirano, M.C. Cortés-Lara, A. Castillo-Chávez, L. Carrillo, L. Pacas, R. Viquez & I. García-Hansen. 2004. Spatial-temporal dynamics of red tide precursor organisms at the Pacific Coast of North and Central America. Revista de Biología Tropical 52 (Suppl. 1): 99-107.         [ Links ]

Sipura, J., K. Haukka, H. Helminen, A. Lagus, J. Suomela & K. Sivonen. 2005. Effect of nutrient enrichment on bacterioplankton biomass and community composition in mesocosms in the Archipelago Sea, northern Baltic. Journal of Plankton Research 27 (12): 1261-1272.         [ Links ]

Skagen, S.K., J.F. Kelly, C. Van-Riper, R.L. Hutto, D.M. Finch, D.J. Krueper & C.P. Melcher. 2005. Geography of spring landbird migration through riparian habitats in southwestern North America. Condor 107 (2): 212-227.         [ Links ]

Smith, J.L. & K.D. Hyrenbach. 2003. Galapagos Islands to British Columbia: Seabird communities along a 9000 km transect from the tropical to the subarctic eastern Pacific Ocean. Marine Ornithology 31 (2): 155-166.         [ Links ]

Sole, C.L., C.H. Scholtz & A.D.S. Bastos. 2005. Phylogeography of the Namib Desert dung beetles Scarabaeus (Pachysoma) MacLeay (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Journal of Biogeography 32 (1): 75-84.         [ Links ]

Stanley, W.T. & L.E. Olson. 2005. Phylogeny, phylogeography, and geographic variation of Sylvisorex howelli (Soricidae), an endemic shrew of the Eastern Arc Mountains, Tanzania. Journal of Zoology (London) 266 (Part 4): 341-354.         [ Links ]

Stephen, C.L., D.G. Whittaker, D. Gillis, L. Cox & O. Rhodes. 2005. Genetic consequences of reintroductions: An example from Oregon prong horn antelope (Antilocapra americana). Journal of Wildlife Management 69 (4): 1463-1474.         [ Links ]

Tallowin, J.R.B., A.J. Rook & S.M. Rutter. 2005. Impact of grazing management on biodiversity of grasslands. Animal Science (Penicuik) 81 (part 2): 193-198.         [ Links ]

Taylor, M.S. & M.E. Hellberg 2006. Comparative phylogeography in a genus of coral reef fishes: biogeographic and genetic concordance in the Caribbean. Molecular Ecology 15 (3): 695-707.         [ Links ]

Thompson, R. & C. Townsend. 2006. A truce with neutral theory: local deterministic factors, species traits and dispersal limitation together determine patterns of diversity in stream invertebrates. Journal of Animal Ecology 75 (2): 476-484.         [ Links ]

Tolley, K.A., M. Burger, A.A. Turner & C.A. Matthee. 2006. Biogeographic patterns and phylogeography of dwarf chameleons (Bradypodion) in an African biodiversity hotspot. Molecular Ecology 15 (3): 781-793.         [ Links ]

Triantis, K.A., K. Vadinoyannis & M. Mylonas. 2005. Area and habitat relationships in island land snail faunas: an Aegean case study exploring the choros model. Records of the Western Australian Museum (Suppl. 68): 133-141.         [ Links ]

Van de Vijver, B., N.J. Gremmen & L. Beyens. 2005. The genus Stauroneis (Bacillariophyceae) in the Antarctic region. Journal of Biogeography 32 (10): 1791-1798.         [ Links ]

Vargas, J.M., J.C. Guerrero & R. Real. 2004. Effects of natural phenomena and human activity on the species richness of endemic and non-endemic Heteroptera in the Canary Islands. Animal Biodiversity and Conservation 27 (2): 57-66.         [ Links ]

Vaughan, D., K.I. Kadowaki, A. Kaga & N. Tomooka. 2005. On the phylogeny and biogeography of the genus Oryza. Breeding Science 55 (2): 113-122.         [ Links ]

Volkov, I., J.R. Banavar, F. He, S.P. Hubell & A. Maritan. 2005. Density dependence explains tree species abundance and diversity in tropical forests. Nature (London) 438: 658-661.         [ Links ]

Watts, P.C., S. Kemp, I.J. Saccheri & D.J. Thompson. 2005. Conservation implications of genetic variation between spatially and temporally distinct colonies of the endangered damselfly Coenagrion mercuriale. Ecological Entomology 30 (5): 541-547.         [ Links ]

Wiens, J. & M. Donoghue. 2004. Historical biogeography, ecology and species richness. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 19 (12): 639-644.         [ Links ]

Wiersma, Y.E. & D.L. Urban. 2005. Beta diversity and nature reserve system design in the Yukon, Canada. Conservation Biology 19 (4): 1262-1272.         [ Links ]

Willette, D.A.S., J.K. Tucker & F.J. Janzen. 2005. Linking climate and physiology at the population level for a key life-history stage of turtles. Canadian Journal of Zoology 83 (6): 845-850.         [ Links ]

Williams, D. & G. Reid. 2005. The Sino-Siberian distribution of Eunotia clevei and its relatives, from Lake Baikal to the Mekong Delta: The union of taxonomy, biogeography and ecology. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 56 (1-17): 179-187.        [ Links ]

Williams, J.C., G.V. Byrd & N.B. Konyukhov. 2003. Whiskered auklets Aethia pygmaea, foxes, humans and how to right a wrong. Marine Ornithology 31 (2): 175-180.         [ Links ]

Wimberly, M.C. 2006. Species dynamics in disturbed landscapes: When does a shifting habitat mosaic enhance connectivity? Landscape Ecology 21 (1): 35-46.         [ Links ]

Woerheide, G., A.M. Sole-Cava & J.N. Hooper. 2005. Biodiversity, molecular ecology and phylogeography of marine sponges: patterns, implications and outlooks. Integrative and Comparative Biology 45 (2): 377-385.         [ Links ]

Yasuda, M., N. Kawaji, A. Fukui & Y. Kanai 2005. Temporal changes of avian communities in Japan during the late 20th century examined using the phi coefficient. Japanese Journal of Ornithology 54 (2): 86-101.         [ Links ]

Zander, C.D. 2005. Four-year monitoring of parasite communities in gobiid fishes of the southwest Baltic III. Parasite species diversity and applicability of monitoring. Parasitology Research 95 (2): 136-144.         [ Links ]

Zhang, L. & T.X. Luo. 2004. Advances in ecological studies on leaf liffspan and associated leaf traits. Zhiwu Shengtai Xuebao 28 (6): 844-852.         [ Links ]

Recibido: 13.08.07

Creative Commons License Todo el contenido de esta revista, excepto dónde está identificado, está bajo una Licencia Creative Commons