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ARQ (Santiago)

versión On-line ISSN 0717-6996

ARQ (Santiago)  no.85 Santiago dic. 2013

http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-69962013000300005 

READINGS

Mobility, Public Space and Architecture

  

Pablo Martí *(1), Sergio García *(2), Almudena Nolasco *(3)

*Professor, Building and Urbanism Department, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante, Spain.


Abstract

The introduction of the tram, associated with a sustainable mobility network and a plan of transformation of public space, has physical and intangible effects on the city. Interventions on mobility, urbanization and architecture result in qualitative improvements in urban integration and public space.

Keywords: Urbanism - Spain, metropolitan mobility, multimodality, urban cohesion, public space, architectural integration.

 


Desirable Integration

The implementation of tramway systems in Spanish cities has become a history of advances and setbacks since the beginning. During the first half of the 20th century, the majority of Spanish metropolises had electric trams as their primary urban mobilization system. In the sixties and seventies they would begin to disappear in favor of the private car that, coupled with the new developments of the eighties and nineties, would provoke an excessive dependence upon them (Newman and Kenworthy, 1999), with the exception of a few cases with a touristic character. It would be starting halfway through the nineties when the tram would be re-implanted in the Spanish cities. On this occasion, the initiative was based on the objective of strengthening a sustainable mobility and en par with the rest of European cities (European Union, 2010).

The adaptation of the old tramway systems to light rail or modern trams was initially produced in Germany and from there extended to the majority of European cities. These alternatives of urban transportation are implemented as a new network while establishing a new relationship with the urban public space (Cristóbal-Pinto, 2009). Midway through the nineties, Spain opted for the incorporation of this system of public transportation, with the Comunidad Valenciana as the first Spanish region to undergo development. In the region, the first city to implement the system was Valencia, in 1994, and the city of Alicante the second in 1999.(1)

Although the wager for a more sustainable mobility in Spain began after many of the European countries, the same strategy was adopted: taking advantage of the implementation of urban intermodal transport systems, intervention in the public spaces was rethought (García Espuche, 1999). In this sense, the implementation of new tramway lines, the associated urban interventions (including the renovation of public space) and the incorporation of inter-modality (bicycle and bus) offered a more sustainable transportation system that extended its benefits to multiple urban variables (May, Kelly and Shepherd, 2006) and ended up having, as a consequence, a desirable moderation in the use of private vehicles (De Grange, 2010).


The Introduction of the Tramway: The Metropolitan TRAM of Alicante

A departure was made during the implementation of the new transport in Alicante(2), from a railway line that joined the city to the smaller towns situated on the north coast to the city of Denia. From this previous line, urban transportation was reformulated according to three different strategies: the modification of the previous line (L1, L3 y L9); the expansion of the route with new routes en boucle linked to the first (L4); and two new sections that joint the previous lines to the city center that, on one side, connect the port area and the beach to the city (L4) and on the other, reach the urban city by subway (L1, L3 y L9) (fig. 1). Besides the expansions and previous modifications, more recently a new line has been outlined (L2) that joins Alicante with the neighboring city of San Vicente del Raspeig. This whole metropolitan network, designed and executed by gtp (managing entity from the Network of Transportation and Ports of the Generalitat Valenciana), has become the backbone for drawing together the peripheral neighborhoods with the city center as well as the between the different outlying districts.

Fig. 1. City of Alicante and its surroundings. Tramway network and the different neighborhoods it passes through.
Source: drawing by the authors from the tram network over photography from the Instituto Geográfico Nacional.

Associated with the tramway network, new bike lanes are were incorporated together with an automated bike rental system a various suburbs of the metropolitan area, favoring a mobility that allows for the "inter-modality" between the tramway, bus, bicycle and pedestrian paths (fig. 2). In the design of the network the stations of the tramway have logically been made to coincide with the automated bike rental points which can be interpreted positively as an example of the interrelationship between different transportation systems and systemic rationalization in its service to the city (Correa, 2010). Once everything is finalized, these two sustainable transportation networks, together with the new remodeled pedestrian spaces, will predictably allow for an important transformation of mobility in the city of Alicante and the adjoining municipalities.

Fig. 2. City of Alicante and its surroundings. Tramway network, bike-lane with infection of bicycle rental points, relevant resources and features of the city. Source: elaboration based on the Cyclist Infrastructure Plan of Alicante and TRAM network over photography from the Instituto Geográfico Nacional.


Metropolitan Integration and Social Cohesion

The urban characteristics of the different neighborhoods of the metropolitan sphere that the tramway lines unite present certain diversity. But two very different spaces can be generally distinguished: the vacation areas together with the city, in the coastal area to the northeast; and the dense residential districts of the northeast. In the first of these areas(3), the coastal occupation would evolve during the seventies with the desarrollismo(4) and increase in tourism. However, this area has lost that seasonal character of the last years upon incorporating important spaces destined for regular residences. Therefore, the former "summer city" has given way to a new metropolitan suburb in which the implementation of a public transport system that connects it with the city center has, in a short time, had a far from negligible relevance.

The second of the mentioned metropolitan spaces crosses a series of very dense neighborhoods (some of a marginal character) and with scarce urban services. In addition, the network connects the center of the city of Alicante with two important focal points of urban attraction: the Universidad de Alicante and the neighboring city of San Vicente del Raspeig, a district characterized by residential spaces equipped with excellent accessibility to the whole Alicante province.

In this sense, from the point of view of social cohesion (Hernández, 2012) the wager for tramlines traversing the northern neighborhoods(5) becomes especially interesting, as some of them certainly present unfavorable conditions in the city of Alicante. The project "Urban: Neighborhoods to the north of Alicante"(6) addresses this situation and triggered a number of proposals for integral regeneration in the city (AA.VV., 2008). So the decision to direct the new tram line along the axis where these neighborhoods are situated demonstrates the willingness to convert this method of transportation in not only an urban system of integration but also social, seeking not to merely resolve mobility for the people but to the "right to centrality" (Borja, 2009).


The Integration of Urban and Metropolitan Equipment

One of the most relevant aspects, achieved partially by the design of the tramway network, relates to the position of the various urban activities and their spatial relationship. In this way, concepts such as "adherence" (Demorgon, 1991) and riveraineté (7) (Amar, 1993; Mayorga and Fontana, 2012) are strengthened. And as such, the route runs along resources with great affluence for their metropolitan character, integrating spots that constitute important focal points for generating urban mobility: in the city center the stations that arrive at the Alicante central market, the train station stand out, or also but less so, the provincial archaeological museum. In the suburbs one notes the accessibility of the various resources, both public and private: two shopping centers, various health centers, numerous student centers, various hospitals (among them the Hospital General) and the Universidad de Alicante. All of these make up the clear example of "different physical, spatial and/or functional relationships, continuous, discontinuous, individual or networked" (Mayorga and Fontana, 2012).

The last two features deserve a especial mention, the Hospital General, with 825 hospital beds, and the Universidad de Alicante, with 30,000 thousand students, as they are located on the two exterior coronas of the city and have a metropolitan character, and so the tram connection is more than necessary (fig. 3 and 4). Also, the connection between the university and the city of Alicante, by means of public transportation, has always been a pending subject. Until this time public transportation was based almost exclusively on the traditional bus line that links Alicante with San Vicente del Raspeig passing through the university.

Fig. 3.

Fig. 4.

Figs. 3 and 4. Tramway line through the two most important features: Hospital General de Alicante and Universidad de Alicante.
Source: author.


The Public Space: The Transformation of the Rail Space

The urban solutions for the incorporation of the line has been adapting to the different circumstances found along the route. Here, three large types of circumstances stand out in relation to the urban insertion of the line:

In first place, the line runs on a landscaped space. In the new outline of the tramway route, advantage has been taken of various urban boulevards whose width and integrative character with activities connect and give structure to the city neighborhoods. However, the solutions have varied from the most classical (those in which the two tram lines occupy the extremes of the gardens situated in the middle of the boulevard(8) (fig. 5), to those in which the line runs through the center of a strictly functional median(9) (fig. 6 and 7), as well as more innovative solutions in which the landscaped area of the boulevard is integrated into the rail lines themselves(10) (fig. 8, 9 and 10). This last case is especially interesting for its attempts to integrate the urbanization in each of the places of the city, favoring sitting areas and pedestrian paths in the conception of the public space as this transformation supposes an important conceptual change in this grand boulevard and its use as public space (Schlack, 2007). A rail section that dominated the space meant for private vehicles (four lanes of vehicular traffic) with reduced space for pedestrians (fig. 9) characterized the previous situation to the intervention. These circumstances have changed a boulevard that has traditionally separated two neighborhoods from different eras(11) and has been converted, after its transformation, in an integrative public space and backbone for this part of the city.

Fig. 5. Outline of the tramway through the Miriam Blasco Boulevard in San Juan Beach, Alicante.
Fuente: author.

Fig. 6.

Fig. 7.

Figs. 6 y 7. Before and after views of the tramway line through Costa Blanca Avenue in San Juan Beach, Alicante.
Source: GTP and author, respectively.

Fig. 08. Aerial view of the new tramway outline through Boulevard del Pla, Alicante
Source: GTP.

Fig. 9. Explicative scheme of the previous state and after the integration of the TRAM through Boulevard del Pla, Alicante.
Source: GTP.

Fig. 10. Tramway outline through Boulevard del Pla, Alicante.
Source: author.

Secondly, the line appears integrated in the traffic routes, over a green or concrete blanket. Within the framework of these new methods of conceptualizing the tram platforms two proposals stand out that, although well known in other areas, had not formed part of the transportation space of the city. On one hand, the mixed platform for public transportation and rails proposed on the Pintor Gastón Castelló Avenue, together with the Hospital General and on the other, the integrated perception of the landscape as the tramway runs through part of the green space.

Thirdly, one can see an outline separated from the tramway and independent. This is the case of some of the new connecting section to the north in the course of the line on the coast (fig. 11). The construction of a new line toward the interior has allowed the liberation of the spaces of the old line and converted it into a maritime promenade. An example of which is the still unfinished promenade that unites the city of Alicante with the Albufereta area. This is a space that is not only a boardwalk along the sea that incorporates artificial stones as lookout to the sea, but it supposes a pedestrian and cyclist connection from the central city to the coastal neighborhoods to the north (fig. 12 and 13).

Fig. 11. Outline of the tramway through the beach of Alicante and views of neighborhoods of Albufereta, Cabo de las Huertas and Playa de San Juan, Alicante.
Source: author.

Fig. 12.

Fig. 13.

Figs. 12 and 13. Outline of the tramway through the Albufereta neighborhood.
Source: author and GTP, respectively.

With respect to urbanization, it combines three treatments to the platforms: natural lawn, where the surroundings lack vegetation to offer a green blanket in a space characterized for the hard nature of the urban landscape; the concrete platform, when green space is not necessary as it is already present in the surroundings; and the introduction of artificial materials that offer vitality and quality to the urban landscape when it is placed in a lifeless urban space (fig. 14, 15, 16). Unlike the other interventions in the cities, the use of these is considered in a way that tries to not compete nor be confused with the natural vegetation. This way, when synthetic grass is used it is in any other color besides green, like the purple along the polygon of housing in Santa Isabel. The idea is a design in which the conception and urban design is adapted to each of the urban landscapes by what occurs along the new tramway line.

Fig. 14.

Fig. 15.

Fig. 16.

Figs. 14 to 16. Outline of tramway through the neighborhoods of Juan XXII and el Pla in Alicante and Colonia Santa Isabel in San Vicente del Raspeig.
Source: author.


The Tramway Stations

The importance of the urban design of the stops and stations is fundamental to guaranteeing its accessibility and with it its integration into the urban fabric (Lotfi and Koohsari, 2009). They are "acupunctures" that "repeat the same activities in sequence along the length of the infrastructural system" (Mayorga and Fontana, 2012). The tramway access stops have been design with special care both in the case of the canopy type -installed in the majority of the stations- and in those cases in which the stop has been designed expressly considering a node or representative landmark in the urban space it services, and also the need to guarantee a vital accessibility (Estupinán and Rodríguez, 2008; Rodríguez, Brisson and Estupinán, 2009; Talavera- García and Valenzuela-Montes, 2012). The sensibility and general interest devoted to the design and functionality of these stations and stops indicates a will distanced from the connotation of "no-place" stated by Augé and closer to the concept of "hyper-place" reserved by Ascher. These projects have been managed through competitions or by commissioning concrete studies. In the first case, for the more standardized stations, a competition was organized whose winning project has become the representative station of the tram. The design resolves canopy cantilevered from a lateral pillar in which ticket sales and information panels are integrated.

In the second case -among the stops designed as urban landmarks of the network- two surface stations stand out, the stop at the Sergio Cardell Rotunda, for its numerous prizes,(12) and the access to the Universidad de Alicante, for being a competition of open ideas. The stop at the Sergio Cardell Rotunda is located in the northern periphery, near the San Juan Beach, in a plaza that articulates the traditional vocational area with new residential neighborhoods developed during the nineties. It is designed with the intention of transforming a place destined exclusively to the vehicular traffic in a space for the citizen. The station is situated in the interior of a large circular plaza whose central space is a garden with olive and palm trees. In the plaza, foot and bicycle access is strengthened by a path system that branch out allowing one to move through the space in multiple directions. Two hollow volumes perforated by eight hundred holes and placed parallel to the lines form the protective canopy of the station. This light structure offers a situation of weightlessness that offers shade during the day and lighting during the night (fig. 17, 18 and 19). In the case of the stop corresponding to the Universidad de Alicante, its design would open by means of a competition disclosed to all of the Spanish architecture schools. It proposes an integral intervention that not only considers a new tramway stop but also designs the university access within it, remodeling both the visual configuration as well as the pedestrian and vehicular access.

Fig. 17.

Fig. 18.

Fig. 19.

Figs. 17 to 19. Sergio Cardell station in the San Juan Beach neighborhood, Alicante.
Source: Subarquitectura team.

From a functional point of view, the pedestrian access is emphasized to give continuity to the paths from the stop to the interior of the university campus, avoiding the previous vehicular crossings. The decision of the competition shows a clear choice for an integrated conception in the urban part of the tramway line. Concretely, the competition jury clearly opted for a solution that conceived an emblematic stop for the university as an architectonic solution that contributed continuity and related the university campus with the tramway stop; understanding that this stop was not mere communication infrastructure, but also an urban element that (as a landmark) constitutes an access door and as such must demonstrate the union of the city with the university (fig. 20).

Fig. 20. Tramway outline and Universidad de Alicante station in San Vicente del Raspeig.
Source: author.


Conclusions

The implementation of the tram and the necessary urbanization to make it function has been planned with the objective of integrating and uniting the public spaces that occur along its length. Also, in each of the different sections it has been adapted to the needs of the urban configuration of the environment to find the best functional solution and its integration (Talen, 2002). This premise allows that the path is outlined, according to the urban environment, buried and hidden, in an exclusive platform for the tramway, shared with public transport or conceived as a green space.

With its improvements to the metropolitan backbone, the tram lines have a great influence on the urban environment: its connectivity plans between the peripheral spaces and other cities with Alicante, through a line that passes through numerous an populous neighborhoods of the city, bear witness to this fact. It gives attention to the access, connection and integration of different student resources, health centers, shopping centers and especially resources of a functional scope such as the university and the Hospital General.

Finally, along with the aforementioned urban changes, urban and architectonic improvements, other benefits have been identified as consequences of the changes in the tramway section, among which the acoustic quality improvements, the reduction of traffic accidents and a greater citizen involvement in the urban regeneration of the neighborhood in which the TRAM circulates.

 

Notes

1. A few years later the electric tram arrived gradually to most of the large and mid-size Spanish cities: Bilbao (2002), Barcelona (2004), Madrid (2007), Sevilla (2007), Tenerife (2007), Murcia, (2007), Vitoria (2008), Málaga (2008) and Zaragoza (2011).

2. TRAM Metropolitano de Alicante is the brand of the tram network that runs through the metropolitan area, the Costa Blanca Axis and the inner city of Alicante, serving a population of more than half million from the Benidorm end to seven hundred thousand people in the Denia area.

3. This area includes the neighborhoods of Albufereta, Cabo de las Huertas and playa de San Juan in Alicante (fig. 2).

4. Spanish Desarrollismo corresponds to the period spanning from the early sixties until 1975, a year that marks the peak of economic growth in Spain during the 20th century -having an average of 7% of the GDP-. During these years, major developments related to land market, building and infrastructure occurred.

5. This group includes the neighborhoods of Virgen del Remedio, Colonia Requena, Virgen del Carmen, Cuatrocientas Viviendas and Sidi-Ifni Nou Alacant, in the city of Alicante, and Colonia Santa Isabel in San Vicente del Raspeig (fig. 2).

6. These are neighborhoods built in the desarrollismo era, initially disconnected from the central areas. Their design followed the Modern movement principles and they housed a population that came to Alicante from other Spanish regions.

7. This is a French term that expresses the quality of a border relation along a riverbank or brooklet (Ed. note).

8. This would be the case of avenida Miriam Blasco in San Juan Playa.

9. As in avenida Costa Blanca in San Juan Playa.

10. The Boulevard del Pla in the first peripheral ring of the city of Alicante is an example of this situation.

11. During the sixties and until the consolidation of the exterior ring in the nineties, this boulevard had become the northeast city limit. That is the reason why it articulates neighborhoods that conceptually and typologically are thirty years apart.

12. The Sergio Cardell Station, designed and built by Subarquitectura Architects, has been awarded several times: it was Honorable mention in the section Urbanism and Landscape of the 2005-2006 via arquitectura coacv Awards; honorable mention in the Bienal Europea Baltasar Neumann 2008; featured in the ix Bienal de Arquitectura Espanola 2008; Second prize Lamp Lighting, 2008; selected to the Brit Insurance Designs of the Year 2009; and finalist in the European Union Prize for Contemporary Architecture Mies van der Rohe Award.

 

References

AA.VV. UNIÓN EUROPEA. LIBRO BLANCO. Hoja de ruta hacia un espacio único europeo de transporte: por una política de transportes competitiva y sostenible. [Online]. 2011. Available at http://eurlex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:52011DC0144:ES:NOT.

AA.VV. Plan Integral de Recuperación. Barrios Zona Norte Alicante. Concejalía de Presidencia y Coordinación de Áreas. Ayuntamiento de Alicante, Alicante, 2008.

AMAR, Georges. "Pour une écologie urbaine des transports". Les annales de la recherche urbaine. Mobilités No 59-60. rapt, Paris, 1993, p. 140-151.

ASCHER, François. "Ciudades con velocidad and movilidad múltiples: un desafío para los arquitectos, urbanistas and políticos". Revista ARQ No 60. Ediciones ARQ, Santiago, 2005, p. 10-19.

AUGÉ, Marc. Non-lieux. Introduction á une anthropologie de la Surmodernité. Editions du Seuil, Paris, 1992.

BORJA, Jordi. "Gobiernos locales, políticas públicas and participación ciudadana". Aportes No 19. Asociación de Administradores Gubernamentales, Buenos Aires, 2009, p. 57-65.

CORREA DIAZ, Germán. "Transporte and ciudad". EURE Vol. 36 No 107. Instituto de Estudios Urbanos and Territoriales de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, 2010, p. 133-137.

CRISTÓBAL PINTO, Carlos. "Reflexión sobre los modos de transporte público en las ciudades". Ingeniería and Territorio No 86. Colegio de Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Barcelona, 2009. p. 32-39.

DE GRANGE, Louis. "El gran impacto del Metro". EURE Vol. 36 No 107. Instituto de Estudios Urbanos y Territoriales de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, 2010, p. 125-131.

DEMORGON, Marcelle. "Le paysage routier et commercial des banlieues parisiennes; la route et l'établissement humain". Annales de la recherche urbaine No 50. Ministere de l'équipement, des Transports et du Tourisme, Paris, 1991, p. 47-56.

ESTUPIÑAÁN, Nicolás and Daniel RODRÍGUEZ. "The Relationship between Urban Form and Station Boardings for Bogotá's BRT". Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice Vol. 42 No 2. Elsevier, Philadelphia, 2008, p. 296-306.

GARCÍA ESPUCHE, Albert. La reconquista de Europa. ?Por qué el espacio público?. Centro de Cultura Contemporánea de Barcelona, Barcelona, 1999.

HERNÁNDEZ, Diego. "Activos y estructuras de oportunidades de movilidad. Una propuesta analítica para el estudio de la accesibilidad por transporte público, el bienestar and la equidad". EURE Vol. 38 No 115. Instituto de Estudios Urbanos y Territoriales de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, 2012, p. 117-135.

LOTFI, Sedigueh and Mohammad KOOHSARI. "Analyzing Accessibility Dimension of Urban Quality of Life: Where Urban Designers Face Duality Between Subjective and Objective Reading of Place". Social Indicators Research Vol. 94 No 3. Springer, Amsterdam, 2009, p. 417-435.

MAY, Anthony D.; KELLY, Charlotte and Simon SHEPHERD. "The Principles of Integration in Urban Transport Strategies". Transport Policy Vol.13 No 4. Elsevier, Philadelphia, 2006, p. 319-327.

MAYORGA, Miguel and María Pía FONTANA. "Espacios de centralidad urbana and redes de infraestructura". Bitácora Urbano/Territorial Vol. 21 No 2. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, 2012, p. 123-138.

NEWMAN, Peter and Jeffrey KENWORTHY. Sustainability and Cities. Overcoming Automobile Dependence. Island Press, Washington, 1999.

RODRÍGUEZ, Daniel A.; BRISSON, Elizabeth M. and Nicolás ESTUPIÑÁN. "The Relationship between Segment-Level Built Environment Attributes and Pedestrian Activity around Bogota's brt Stations". Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment Vol. 14, No 7. Elsevier, Philadelphia, 2009, p. 470-478.

SCHLACK, Elke. "Espacio público". Revista ARQ, No 65. Ediciones ARQ, Santiago, 2007, p. 25-27.

TALAVERA-GARCÍA, Rubén and Luis VALENZUELA-MONTES. "La accesibilidad peatonal en la integración espacial de las paradas de transporte público". Bitácora Urbano/Territorial N° 21 (2). Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, 2012, p. 97-109.

TALEN, Emily. "Pedestrian Access as a Measure of Urban Quality". Planning Practice & Research Vol. 17 No 3. Routledge, Essex, 2002, p. 257-278.


1. Pablo Martí. Architect, 1995 and Doctor Architect, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, 2001. He has been involved in several projects in the areas of public space, urban and territorial planning. His research is focused in urban transformations and expansion. Currently he is professor in the Urban and Regional Planning Department at the Universidad de Alicante.

2. Sergio García. Architect, 1994 and Doctor Architect, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, 2003. His Doctoral Thesis got a grant from the Diputación de Alicante. He has been part of several professional teams working in planning and sustainable urban mobility issues. Currently he is professor of Urban Studies at the Universidad de Alicante and his research focus in urban public space.

3. Almudena Nolasco. Architect, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, 2007 and Master in Architecture and Sustainable Urbanism, Universidad de Alicante, 2011. She has been involved in urban and architectural projects in Spain; her research addresses territorial strategies, particularly those related to tourism industry. Currently she is professor in the Urban and Regional Planning Department at the Universidad de Alicante.

AA.VV. UNIÓN EUROPEA. LIBRO BLANCO. Hoja de ruta hacia un espacio único europeo de transporte: por una política de transportes competitiva y sostenible. 2011. Disponible en http://eurlex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:52011DC0144:ES:NOT.         [ Links ]

AA.VV. Plan Integral de Recuperación. Barrios Zona Norte Alicante. Concejalía de Presidencia y Coordinación de Áreas. Ayuntamiento de Alicante, Alicante, 2008.         [ Links ]

AMAR, Georges. "Pour une écologie urbaine des transports". Les annales de la recherche urbaine. Mobilités No 59-60. RAPT, París, 1993, p. 140-151.         [ Links ]

ASCHER, François. "Ciudades con velocidad y movilidad múltiples: un desafío para los arquitectos, urbanistas y políticos". Revista ARQ No 60. Ediciones ARQ, Santiago, 2005, p. 10-19.         [ Links ]

AUGÉ, Marc. Non-lieux. Introduction á une anthropologie de la Surmodernité. Editions du Seuil, París, 1992.         [ Links ]

BORJA, Jordi. "Gobiernos locales, políticas públicas y participación ciudadana". Aportes No 19. Asociación de Administradores Gubernamentales, Buenos Aires, 2009, p. 57-65.         [ Links ]

CORREA DÍAZ, Germán. "Transporte y ciudad". EURE Vol. 36 No 107. Instituto de Estudios Urbanos y Territoriales, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, 2010, p. 133-137.         [ Links ]

CRISTÓBAL PINTO, Carlos. "Reflexión sobre los modos de transporte público en las ciudades". Ingeniería y Territorio No 86. Colegio de Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Barcelona, 2009. p. 32-39.         [ Links ]

DE GRANGE, Louis. "El gran impacto del Metro". EURE Vol. 36 No 107. Instituto de Estudios Urbanos y Territoriales, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, 2010, p. 125-131.         [ Links ]

DEMORGON, Marcelle. "Le paysage routier et commercial des banlieues parisiennes; la route et l'établissement humain". Annales de la recherche urbaine No 50. Ministere de l'équipement, des Transports et du Tourisme, París, 1991, p. 47-56.         [ Links ]

ESTUPIÑÁN, Nicolás y Daniel RODRÍGUEZ. "The Relationship between Urban Form and Station Boardings for Bogotá's BRT". Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice Vol. 42 No 2. Elsevier, Filadelfia, 2008, p. 296-306.         [ Links ]

GARCÍA ESPUCHE, Albert. La reconquista de Europa. ¿Por qué el espacio público? Centro de Cultura Contemporánea de Barcelona, Barcelona, 1999.         [ Links ]

HERNÁNDEZ, Diego. "Activos y estructuras de oportunidades de movilidad. Una propuesta analítica para el estudio de la accesibilidad por transporte público, el bienestar y la equidad". EURE Vol. 38 No 115. Instituto de Estudios Urbanos y Territoriales, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, 2012, p. 117-135.         [ Links ]

LOTFI, Sedigueh y Mohammad KOOHSARI. "Analyzing Accessibility Dimension of Urban Quality of Life: Where Urban Designers Face Duality Between Subjective and Objective Reading of Place". Social Indicators Research Vol. 94 No 3. Springer, Ámsterdam, 2009, p. 417-435.         [ Links ]

MAY, Anthony D.; KELLY, Charlotte y Simon SHEPHERD. "The Principles of Integration in Urban Transport Strategies". Transport Policy Vol.13 No 4. Elsevier, Filadelfia, 2006, p. 319-327.         [ Links ]

MAYORGA, Miguel y María Pía FONTANA. "Espacios de centralidad urbana y redes de infraestructura". Bitácora Urbano/Territorial Vol. 21 No 2. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, 2012, p. 123-138.         [ Links ]

NEWMAN, Peter y Jeffrey KENWORTHY. Sustainability and Cities. Overcoming Automobile Dependence. Island Press, Washington, 1999.         [ Links ]

RODRÍGUEZ, Daniel A.; BRISSON, Elizabeth M. y Nicolás ESTUPIÑÁN. "The Relationship between Segment-Level Built Environment Attributes and Pedestrian Activity around Bogota's brt Stations". Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment Vol. 14, No 7. Elsevier, Filadelfia, 2009, p. 470-478.         [ Links ]

SCHLACK, Elke. "Espacio público". Revista ARQ No 65. Ediciones ARQ, Santiago, 2007, p. 25-27.         [ Links ]

TALAVERA-GARCÍA, Rubén y Luis VALENZUELA-MONTES. "La accesibilidad peatonal en la integración espacial de las paradas de transporte público". Bitácora Urbano/Territorial, N° 21 (2). Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, 2012, p. 97-109.         [ Links ]

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