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ARQ (Santiago)

versión On-line ISSN 0717-6996

ARQ (Santiago)  no.85 Santiago dic. 2013

http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-69962013000300011 

READINGS

The Plano Detallado de Santiago by Alejandro Bertrand (1889-1890)

  

Wren Strabucchi*(1), Magdalena Vicuña*(2), Germán Hidalgo*(3), José Rosas*(4)

*Professor, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.


Abstract

In the late 19th century the thorough survey of every street profile in Santiago generated a set of documents which, throughout the next century, allowed extensive operations of urban modernization. Implementations of sewerage systems, tram networks and power lines are tributary to this first plan that managed to integrate the vast reality of the city.

Keywords: Urbanism - Chile, survey, plans, modern city, urban transformation.


 

The Survey of Streets in the Urban Transformations at the Beginnings of the 20th Century

In 1889, the Municipality of Santiago charged the engineer, Alejandro Bertrand (1854-1942) with the city survey consisting of a faithful transcription of all the streets and the elements that define them. This work, later known as the Plano detallado de Santiago -Detailed Plan of Santiago- became the reference from which the urban operations of Santiago were planned at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century. The way to represent and understand the city through its streets established the basis for a spatial comprehension of the urban phenomenon, the rational organization of the urban territory and, in large part, the establishment of a public consciousness over the necessity for this representation as an instrument. Despite this, and knowing full well that the Municipality of Santiago used the Bertrand's document until 1990, the urban theory and historiography have been ignoring it until recently. In this context, the objective of this article(1) is to identify the influences that the Alejandro Bertrand's street survey has had on the transformations and modernization of Santiago during the first decades of the 20th century, demonstrating how it articulates two completely different realities of the city: the pre-modern, pre-urbanized city and the modern or urbanized city.

For this it is necessary to first know what the survey consisted of, describe its products and contextualize in historical and disciplinary terms. The chain of events following must also be revised and analyzed, and inferences must be made accordingly. Among these effects are the laws and regulations established in this period and the urban plans and projects that were then proposed and executed. Determining the relationships between these instances allows us to recognize two types of effective influence of Bertrand's work: the first being how it acted as a support and instrument for later transformations of the city, in particular, as a central antecedent for the Santiago regulatory plan of 1939. The second influence lies as its role as a modernizer for city development as basis for urbanization, and thus, as a system of representation whose radical emphasis was placed on the street.

With the Detailed Plan of Santiago, different scales of mobility were represented as an insoluble dimension of the urban, metropolitan condition of the city as it moved toward modernity. As we will later see, the urbanism of the 19th century in Santiago reclaims an integrated condition of the varied systems of movement, that is, the pedestrian, the streetcar and horse-drawn vehicles, among others, that occur in the street space. Thus the mobility constitutes a dimension around which multiple factors congregate related with road infrastructure and networks of service, architecture, landscape and territory. On the other hand, the detailed plan introduces a notion of accessibility in Santiago, a democratic conception of the city that allows for the relationship between places and road systems in the city.


The Modern Condition of the Document and its Context

The modern condition of the Bertrand's Detailed Plan of Santiago can be understood from the following applications: the Municipality of Santiago's recognition of the commission, its origin and the need for its creation; a detailed description of the document itself and finally its historical and disciplinary context, considering the hegemony of the figure of the engineer. On the first point, there lacks any precise antecedent. What is explicit is that during that time this kind of specialist did not exist and, as such, Bertrand was effectively chosen without competition.

However, the commission itself of the plan is unknown and so it must be deduced from three antecedents. The first has to do with the necessity to elaborate a precise plan of Santiago, a need that -as we will see later- originated 20 years earlier during the time of the Intendant Vicuna Mackenna. The second antecedent is allocated in two paragraphs of the official document where are clues on the aim as to what the work must address. The third states its role as articulator between two states of the city: the pre-urbanized and urbanized city. One last aspect that must be considered also informs on the origin of this commission, that is, that Bertrand had previously created, between 1885 and 1886, a similar plan of Valparaiso (Rudoff, upon elaboration). In the port's municipality a more complete documentation of this work is conserved; a study of these materials could give us new clues for the present investigation.


The Detailed Plan of Santiago

The survey, design and construction of the Detailed Plan of Santiago, by Bertrand, took place between January 1889 and November 1890 (Corvalán, 2008). The work of Bertrand was prolific and extends much farther than this commission; the level of precision of the plan created for the Municipality of Valparaiso between 1885 and 1886 foretold the excellence of his later work in Santiago. Evidence indicates that during his work for the Municipality of Santiago, Bertrand participated simultaneously in a the elaboration of a map of the Chilean Republic later drawn and published by Pissic, Petermann, Martín and others (Corvalán, 2008). In both Santiago and Valparaiso, Bertrand proposed planes for urban transformation in 1892 and 1906 respectively. Also, on various opportunities he worked for the Chilean state in the mapping and demarcation of the borders of the country with the Republic of Argentina. It should also be said that the survey techniques used in city mapping differ significantly from those used in territorial scale cartography.

Bertrand personifies that attitude of rigorous description that is produced between 1890 and 1910, a period in which national cartography was consolidated with the territory. It is in this way that the cities are configured linked to their representation, and the rural zones and landscape are visualized by means of mapping representation. In effect, between 1895 and 1915, the then Servicio Geográfico del Ejército (today Instituto Geográfico Militar) made a survey of the central zone of Chile at 1: 25,000 scale(2) in which both the rural, urban and territorial zones were described in detail. The national, regional and urban cartography aspired to constitute coherent relationships between them, not only assuming an integral vision of the territory but also demanding an inclusive rigor to detail.

In the case of the Santiago commission, Alejandro Bertrand titled his report as "Survey and formation of the Detailed Plan of Santiago 1889-1890"(3). And so it is in the document conserved in the Chilean National Library and which the author defined as the "guide" for understanding the totality of his work. The introductory text, directed to the intendant of Santiago, begins precisely with a list of the material submitted to the municipality: workbooks, registries, bundles of drafts together with plans representing the work of the "survey, construction and drawing of the plan" (Bertrand, 1890). Not reflected in the title of the report is that the Detailed Plan of Santiago was a collection of plans drawn at different scales composed from a plan at 1: 5,000 scale called the "mural plan" (155 x 183 cm) that represents the total of the urban section just as reproduced by the 1: 5,000 pan attached to this edition-; 66 sheets (54 x 130 cm) that made up the "general plan" and that also represented the whole area at 1: 1,000 scale; and 259 "rolls" (52 cm wide and of variable length)(4) that were the rectification plans of all the urban streets of Santiago, drawn at scale 1: 200(5). It also included six plans of plazas and squares; and a 1: 10,000 scale "index plan", and two copies of the mural plan "with the gas and water pipe routes". A "crossing plan" was also developed with the 1,273 street crossings at scale 1: 200 on "a circular sheet with a 0.3 m diameter". If in epistemological terms the cartographical plan of all the streets (general plan) is the complete unit of the study, its different scales constitute a disintegration of the urban phenomenon in parts, assigned to a network of coordinates that situate it with respect to the whole.

Of the elements that make up the Detailed Plan of Santiago only two remains: the rolls of streets(6) and the explicative summary which comes together with the "index plan" at 1: 10,000 scale for consulting the "general plan". The description of the work and of the plans that are still conserved, show a level of precision in the survey, construction and drawing unprecedented in the cartography of Santiago. In fact, the isolated representation of each street at 1: 200 scale constitutes a unique undertaking even today. Each plan contains layers that can be dismantled and each layer of the plan coincides with the elements that make up the street as an urban phenomenon. These elements are: building lines, curbs, trees, canals, train lines, lightposts, topography lines, monuments, dams, names of significant buildings, street names(7). The Detailed Plan of Santiago allows for the visualization of urban infrastructures from the end of the 19th century: streetcar lines, the gas lines, electrical and telephone lines and the drainage network and water main, the latter conformed principally of basins. This way, the record of each street in particular is testimony to the pre-urbanized street (that is, the street in its pre modern condition) but also of the sense of this survey in terms of improvement and transformation of the roads.

At 123 years from its execution, the exhaustivity and rigor of the survey, design and construction of the plans realized by Bertrand must be highlighted. In that regard, the dual quality of his work is noted: the simultaneity of multiple scales and the method of street representation. This permits us to make two digressions on the collection of plans: one related with the role he had in the incorporation of the infrastructure to the city, and another considering that the radicalism of the description of the streets allow one to understand it as an urban project(8). The multi-scale approximation demonstrates that for the first time the city is understood and represented as a network based on other networks. It is for this reason that the emphasis is placed on negative space in the street. It is over, under and on the surface of the street where the infrastructure of transport and services is laid out. These will determine the radical transformation of the city of Santiago, a transformation that is sustained in the communal areas. In this realm, the communal, where many displacements, paths, meetings and relationships that society requires for its function occur and which, definitively, unfold a narrative sequence, constitutive of the imaginary collective of the city and, in consequence, of the public urban space.


Historical Context

The Detailed Plan of Santiago, together with the initial works of the Instituto Geográfico Militar at 1: 25,000 scale and the first land registries of urban blocks in 1910, is inscribed in the period in which a pulse for systematic description, knowledge of urban physiognomy and border recognition is observed (Hidalgo and Strabucchi, 2011). This pulse of cartographical systemization has a correlation in other Latin American and European capitals that at the end of the 19th century were in similar processes of urbanization and saw the need to generate graphic documentation of this kind (Zucconi, 1989). This was the case in cities like Buenos Aires (1898), Bogotá (1888), Lima (1880) and others. However, the mapping process for Santiago has particular characteristics by contributing specifically to acts of extraordinary importance for the country. And so, at the end of the 19th century, Chile saw a period of great economic growth resulting from winning the Pacific War (1879-1881) and its consolidation as a world scale saltpeter producer.

Precisely, the obtaining of these new incomes motivated the president, José Manuel Balmaceda, chosen on September 18, 1886, to propose an ambitious plan of investment in public works. An example of this was the creation of the Ministerio de Industria y Obras Públicas -Industry and Public Works Department-, "which in 1890 absorbed more than a third of the national budget" (Collier and Sater, 1998). Among the multiple works realized throughout the country, the canalization of the Mapocho River stands out, a work whose execution had been awaited for at least two decades (Benjamín Vicuna Mackenna had plans drawn by Ernesto Ansart). As is known, the end of the Balmaceda's administration was upsetting and tragic, yet it left a large quantity of public works built throughout the country that were the basis for its modernization in the 20th century.

It is not strange that the president to follow him was Jorge Montt Álvarez (1891-1896), precisely his Minister of Public Works. The work of Bertrand is placed, as such, in a hinging moment for politics in Chile, during a long period dominated by a presidential regimen (1851-1891) and a similar lapse where the congress dominated politically (1891-1925). Following the chain of events, it can be seen that Alejandro Bertrand developed his activities with ease in both political moments. Certainly, if under Balmaceda's mandate he executed the street survey for Santiago and was chief of the Argentinian border commission, during Jorge Montt Álvarez's government he was named as the saltpeter delegate (1892). This charge led him to explore the desert to record the presence of this mineral on fiscal property for which he submitted a report (Maino, 2013). Along with this, in 1895 he was named general director of Public Works (Greve, 1938), with which he had a constant collaboration with the State, independently of the government authorities of the present administration and (it must be said) in an extraordinary period of significant political change.


Detailed Plan of Santiago: Continuity of a Purpose

As anticipated, an important antecedent to the need for the Santiago plan came in 1872 when Benjamín Vicuna Mackenna formulated his plan for the transformation of Santiago (Vicuna Mackenna, 1872). The account contained in this plan, the exposed objectives, the city model and urbanization of the territory that is the consequence of these directives constitute in our opinion a deed of enormous transcendence in the transition of the city of blocks to a systematic urbanization of streets. In this context, to undertake this transformation, a record of the city was necessary, understood as a support to the concept that would guide the planning. For this, the work was charged to the chief of the Municipal Engineers Office, Ernesto Ansart. As a result, a plan was obtained in which a careful description of the city and the outline of the projects coexist without distinction. Vicuna Mackenna (1873) planted the need to construct a "definitive plan of the city" such as a "topographical plan of the department of Santiago". In a letter directed to Ernesto Ansart, Vicuna Mackenna commented: "The moment has come to execute vigorously [.] the survey of the topographical plan of the city, in a scale adequate to use for all the susceptible improvements and all the requirements demanded by the works" (Ibíd.: 76-77). Later he insists that "the exact plan of the capital is the indispensable base for all its improvements and advances" (Ibíd.: 208)(9). Even though Ansart elaborated a technical plan of the city and represented the new streets, opening of others, the tram and train system, strictly speaking the definitive plan would only arrive in 1890 with Alejandro Bertrand. In the same letter, Vicuna Mackenna refers to a "general plan" and a reduction of terms and similar sizes to the two principal plans executed seventeen years later by Bertrand.(10).

The relationship between the engineer, Alejandro Bertrand, and the intendant, Benjamín Vicuna Mackenna is still to be written. However, the influence of this with the way of understanding the city has been widely studied. In many of Vicuna Mackenna's writing one can observe the distinction established between "that which is the capital and that which should be". This distinction is manifested clearly in the Detailed Plan of Santiago, elaborated by Alejandro Bertrand in the sense that will make up the first survey of Santiago that describes "that which is the capital" and will be the basis for the future projects of transformation for the city. The documentation elaborated by Bertrand appears as the link mediating between Vicuna Mackenna's transformation plan of 1872-1875 and the different operations of infrastructure implemented in Santiago in the beginnings of the 20th century.

In effect, an improvement and correction of the existing urban structure requires a visualization of the state in which each of the streets and blocks of the general urban organization is found. Understanding that the objective of the survey realized by Bertrand was to create a new plan of the city that would reflect the changes that occurred since the situation recorded by Ansart's plan and undertake proposals to rectify and regularize the order of the fabric, it is logical to deduce that the material allocated in the Detailed Plan of Santiago was later utilized extensively. If one takes into account that Bertrand was the director and fiscal inspector of the Alcantarillado de Santiago from 1905, it is very probable that the very plans made up by him served as the basis for the bidding of works such as the Transformation Law of the city in 1909 that regulated the opening, widening, joining and rectification of streets.

A fundamental methodological consideration over the history of urbanization in Latin America is that even though contributions through the colonial period and revolutionary phase are recorded, including the urban developments associated with the changes of the first decades of the 20th century, the studies of restitution planimetry at smaller scales, as a historical source are scarce. In effect, a better spatial and temporal understanding of the processes that record the city and the territory in our region must advance beyond the specific urban experiences of the period of republican modernization in which the paradigms of the city were modified and an inflection in the urban structure begun.(11)

Few studies make reference to Bertrand's work and bits relationship with the history of urbanism in Chile. Among these is found the article, "The illustrious representation of the municipal commission, in which the author, Ignacio Corvalán (2008) provides the antecedents of the commissioned received by Bertrand while Ernesto Greve, in his History of Engineering in Chile (1938) makes reference to Bertrand's work. Although indirectly, the article "The cartographical representation as the production of knowledge: technical reflections around the construction of Santiago in 1910" by Hidalgo, Rosas and Strabucchi (2010) covers the problems of the construction of a plan that portrays a city already gone and makes specific references to Bertrand's survey. Lastly, from time to time, Gurovich (2003) has made reference to a project for the transformation of the Alameda by Bertrand.


Santiago 1890-1939: Between Plans, Projects and Urbanization Codes

Here, vague reference is made to the sequence of events following the realization of the Detailed Plan of Santiago of 1890, in relation to the transformation plans, the infrastructure projects and the urbanization laws. These events demonstrate its role as a facilitator to the evolution of the street towards an urbanized city. Undoubtedly, by the end of the 19th century, the industrialization generated unprecedented urban growth in Chile that permitted development and innovation in the technologies for transport and service network infrastructure. In fact, in 1890 we found ourselves in the beginnings of what would be the first of the large urban expansions, product of the emigrations from the country to the city. (12)

The technical plans elaborated by Bertrand in 1890 allowed for a record of the existing topographical situation of all streets up to the date and can be understood as instruments for a future public plan for the municipality in both the modernization of its transport infrastructure and new projects for service networks as well as guaranteeing the continuity of streets and approval of the widths within. Also, this survey would permit the evaluation of the effects that opening, widening and rectifying the edification lines would have on private property in both the creation of plazas and public space in certain areas of the city. Urban growth at the end of the 19th century was not exclusive to the addition of the parts that conform the foundational grid, that is, the block. In fact, this form of growth evolved from simple to complex giving way to a new state of development from which came the progressive introduction of a collection of technical devices that bestow a new role. The grid becomes complex and acquires the condition of a mesh conformed by a collection of communication channels and networks that transport products, people and services that condense another reality and which finally involve both the block and the territory (Aliata, 2006).

The transformation and growth plans of the modern city have demanded an objective and systematic knowledge of the reality to be intervened, even more so when it means implementing large-scale infrastructure that will radically modify its physiognomy. The multiple proposals in the urbanism area that were made for Santiago during the second half of the 19th century and the beginnings of the 20th show a city whose transformation was in permanent discussion. We have evidence that between the Transformation of Santiago by Vicuna Mackenna (1872) and the Official Urbanization Plan of the Municipality of Santiago by Karl Brünner and Roberto Humeres (1931-1939) prioritize the concept of "city transformation" which necessarily implies an alteration in the form of development and urban growth. Among these initiatives Bertrand's plan stands out, an unsuccessful proposal in 1892; as noted by Gurovich (2003), in this project chamfered corners are proposed and the "design of converging route plazas, along with the outline of the north-south axis, 25 meters wide, utilizing the plan of the streets Bandera and San Diego, between Mapocho and Franklin, in which two secondary routes using the Las Claras (today Enrique Mac- Iver) and Manuel Rodríguez, both widened to 20 meters".

Years after the Detailed Plan of Santiago, and after the implementation of the plumbing networks in 1910, a series of transformation plans were introduced proposing the widening of existing streets along with the construction of new diagonal streets or the fruition of new parks and beltways(13). The tendency of city growth beyond the border established by rails was recognized along with the development of linear, urban corridors in all directions from the territory together with the formation of new nuclei and neighborhoods that flow the centric colonial modulation. And in turn, a series of infrastructure operations were implemented after the Detailed Plan of Santiago, which (as mentioned) allowed the design and as such the calculation and price estimation of large scale, complex urban projects. In 1891 the train line to Puente Alto was built and the channeling of the Mapocho River was finished, having begun in 1888. In 1900 construction was started on Parque Forestal and, one year later, the lighting was installed. Also new plazas and public spaces were made in a city that was characterized by its lack of trees and green space. (14)

In the transformation of Santiago, the intendant, Ismael Valdés Valdés (1917) warns that "the transport method oblige us to change the conditions of the cities, the primitive streets appropriate for foot or horse traffic become ineffective for carriages and impossible for cars and trams and especially for buses; this progress in the locomotion conditions obliges the cities to develop" (De Ramón, 1983). In effect, in 1890 there were two hundred "horse carts" in the city of Santiago and its routes had played a decisive role in the expansion of the city. It was this way that in 1910 the first electric trams replaced these horse trams. As has been exhaustively documented, in 1910, 280 cars functioned on 27 service lines that were later expanded to incorporate the neighborhoods of Nunoa, Providencia, Recoleta and Quinta Normal (Salas, 2012).

For the Republic's Centennial gasoline powered vehicles were also incorporated to the city's public transport system. It must be mentioned that the implementation of the tramway infrastructure not only required widening and modernizing the rails but also coordination with the network of electricity poles. On the other hand, paving the streets and sidewalks was necessary to generate a continuous plane in the city; in the last decade of the 19th century, Santiago presented a significant shortage in this aspect(15). It is for this reason that in 1901 the Obligatory paving law was passed that allowed the municipalities to require property owners of urban estates to pay for the pavement corresponding half the width of the street (Larraín Bravo, 1909). Two years later the streets situated between Mac-Iver and Estacion Central were declared to have obligatory paving, an improvement that must be done in cobblestone over a concrete foundation. Later, in 1906, proposals were or dered for paving the rest of the city and to repave those areas that had been destroyed with the precaution of coordinating with the electrical network and the garden construction (De Ramón and Gross, 1983). The transport systems already demanded an understanding of the street as a route for urban flow. Until 1890, the development of infrastructure had taken on over time an adaptive and accumulative form in so far as city growth allowed (Salas, 2012). As a consequence of Bertrand's survey, it was possible to tackle the network infrastructure all of its complexity in a systematic way.

With respect to the field of urban regimentation, many urban laws coming after the Detailed Plan of Santiago tried to establish a statutory framework for giving form to public and private space in this city in full process of transformation. For this, they established not only codes for ordering and standardize paving but also for levels and widths of the street as well as the drainage and provision of drinking water. The Detailed Plan of Santiago, because it exhaustively described the elements making up the city streets, effectively makes its design and regulation possible(16). We found an example of this in the gutter system, which was generally in an unhealthy state (De Ramón and Gross, 1983). In 1896 the Law No 342 was published establishing that the obligatory drainage service must be through gutters and pipes; and in 1903 the gutter system began construction and concluded in 1910.

That same year the Law No 1832 was disclosed that authorized the expropriations in the way that the Municipality of Santiago was authorized to emit funds for these operations. In 1909 (as mentioned earlier) the Law No 2203 or Transformation of Santiago Law was approved. This code, that replaced the law of 1874(17), established a minimum width of fifteen meters for all streets in the city, measured between the construction lines of both sides, which was completed with chamfered corners, also obligatory, of more than four meters in the corners not inferior to one-hundred and twenty degrees. The same law established that the street lines, plazas and avenues must be adjusted to a plan approved by the municipality that was never implemented.

As Gurovich points out, the application of this law, without the implementation of the street plan, "unleashes an increase in expenses to public funds, which being taken up by the multiplication of its insolvency in separate operations, disorient objectives, augment the uncertainty and end up producing a landscape of generalized discontinuous alignments" (Gurovich, 2000), reason for why it has been called the "Saw law". For its part, the Municipality law of 1915 established the first legal basis for urbanization, pointing out that "it is not possible to form new neighborhoods within the urban limits of the cities by means of the division of properties and its sale in sites without the interested parties having been previously submitted to the approval of the municipality and the respective plan in which the location and dimensions of the streets and plaza they propose will be determined" (Rajevic, 2000).

Even though the Law of Autonomous municipalities (Ministerio del Interior, 1891), approved a year after the finish of the Detailed Plan of Santiago awarded the municipalities the authority to fix the urban limits "to determine conditions in which new public works and new neighborhoods can be given to public use" and "standardize the construction of buildings or other projects that border the public streets, determining the corresponding lines and the conditions that must be fulfilled to impede collapses and fire propagation" (art. 25), it wasn't until the 20th century with the first General Law of Constructions and Urbanization (1936) when it was required for the first time that all municipalities with more than 8,000 inhabitants had an official urbanization plan, approved by the president. In this plan the street outlines and necessary public spaces for city growth must be present.

The development of the operational urbanism and regulation in the city of Santiago towards the last quarter of the 19th century and beginnings of the 20th would have been impossible without an exhaustive and diligent survey of its streets that make up the condition of the Bertrand's record as an inflection point in the city's history; specifically during its transition from a pre-urbanized to urbanized city (Saavedra, 2000). The regulatory plan of Santiago of 1939 (elaborated by Karl Brünner) integrated for the first time in a single document, rules and plans; the Detailed Plan of Santiago support for the design of the regulatory plan(18) for which can be said that, before the beginning of the 20th century, in Chile the doors had opened on a modern age. Although Alejandro Bertrand never used the term urbanization, the Detailed Plan of Santiago made possible that the city could be understood as an artifact equipped with infrastructure and basic urban services


Emergence of Mobility and the Urbanization of the Street as a Modern Effect

The process of urbanization in Santiago during its transition to modernity was in grand part over the existing city. In effect, the large majority of the operations of urban growth in Santiago occurred within the same body of material of the city, a "expansion" over the preexisting: the same streets of the colonial and republican city, now aligned and rectified in their length and width. In the same vein, the Detailed Plan of Santiago allowed for the reflection over the urbanity associated with the street and block derived by their foundational outline. For Bertrand, the street constitutes the void between blocks from which the modern city will be built. Bertrand did not record the rural streets. He recorded the street that joins the urban land distribution and buildings, constituting a new angle of understanding the urban regulation. In fact, it wasn't until 1910 that a survey within the blocks was realized in the city of Santiago.

The transition towards the modern city is induced by the change that is required principally in the order of the transport, water and drainage networks. In effect, the potable water, rain water and drainage lines were moved from the interior of the block and surface of public space to under ground in a zig-zag kind of network that capitalizes the slope of the urban structure (Pérez, Rosas and Valenzuela, 2005). On its part, the new tram network that required the replacement of the rails and the installation of raised electrical lines found in this space the appropriate location for its construction (Salas, 2012). The new infrastructure must then be coordinated with the existing telephone, gas and electricity networks. The street was then converted into a base for the infrastructure networks at all levels: above, on and below the surface (underground).

If the street in its three-dimensional condition consists of a fundamental base for the construction of infrastructure systems, then it confirms that the precision and rigor in the knowledge of the street network of Santiago is not only the first step towards the transition to an urbanized city, but also the base document for any bid or concession for the water and drainage projects in Santiago. The Detailed Plan of Santiago played a fundamental role in this transition in that it was the basis for the precise and objective knowledge that permitted the undertaking of a complete urbanizing force like in the opening of streets upon which the city would develop. This last aspect appears in the Labarca Feliú's plan of 1893, which, as stated by Martínez (2007), presents slight variations in relation to Ansart's plan, but records the opening of the so-called "covered streets" and the channeling of the Mapocho River.

As such, the street record and the urban operations it made possible allowed the unveiling of the intersection between the pre-modern city and that that incorporates urbanization as a modern fact. The pre-urbanized city begins a process of transition towards an articulated city (Dupuy, 1998), a structure of systemic relationships between sites, blocks, streets and territory. The urbanization process make the city like a network of autonomous infrastructure systems: the tram and railways, the gas network, the power lines, the potable water and drainage network, the communications network and that of public spaces. The materialization of the streets by means of pavement and infrastructure operations and the aligning of buildings derived from Bertrand's survey constitute an operation of modernization of unprecedented dimensions. And so we can confirm that the streets and new avenues represent the first operations of modern urbanism, which even comes before modern architecture.(19)

The sanitation plan of the city of Santiago illustrates how modern outlook and thought had been installed in the country. In 1909, Ricardo Larraín Bravo, in his Hygiene applied to constructions, affirmed that the cities must organize themselves around a "street system" within which there are four types of streets that the city required: radial, loops, cross-streets, and diagonals. This street system should be conceived to facilitate the traffic, the circulation of pedestrians, cars and trams, the articulation with the existing truck system, the property limits and the natural topography (Larraín Bravo, 1909).

The Detailed Plan of Santiago is situated within a context where the state begins to take on an active role in the administration of the city. Coinciding with Harvey's plan in that "with its interest in the governability, administration, taxing, planning and social control, the state apparatus has been establishing itself permanently from the 18th century as a primordial sphere for the compilation and analysis of geographical information"(Harvey, 2007). We consider that Bertrand's cartography is evidence of the modern method of social control, equivalent to the colonial method of monarchical control. Effectively, the 1: 200 scale of the rolls of streets demonstrates with total clarity the elements that make up the public space, scope of action and power of the state.

The systems of infrastructure arise as facilitator of a new metropolis, which confronts the problems of transportation and sanitation that allows for a renewed vision of the city: a more capitalist, inclusive, complex city open to change. An urbanized city that, along with many other dimensions, establishes regulatory codes for city blocks and with it new capital gains.

Alejandro Bertrand's work is clearly inserted in that posed by Manuel de Solá Morales, regarding how "during the second half of the 19th century, the construction of the city will demand, principally, an enormous effort at urLECTURAS | RE ADINGS 81 banization to prepare the guidable land: the addition of streets, designation of building lines and set back, definition of infrastructures and the implementation of public services" (de Solá Morales, 2008).

One hundred and twenty three years after the conclusion of Bertrand's monumental work and considering the transformations it enabled through operational urbanism (infrastructure plans and projects and public space) and regulation (laws and codes), the urbanization constitutes the official method of growth of Santiago (although not general method). In fact, the General Law of Constructions and Urbanization (1936) defined the term "urbanization" as the "measures taken to ensure the appropriate development of a city or population having in mind its sanitation, the hygiene define and aesthetics of its buildings, the ease of transit in its streets and avenues". For modern urbanism, the aesthetic considerations will be as relevant as the technical and functional aspects of the city.

From this plan we can affirm that the street is the organizing element, the skeleton over which the city is designed; definitively, where urban plans and works of modernization take their form.

 

Notes

1. Article developed for the project FONDECYT N° 1110684, "Santiago 1890: The street as a base and transit toward modernity. Transcription and plan development of the street census of Bertrand". Investigator: José Rosas; co-investigators: Germán Hidalgo and Wren Strabucchi; collaborator: Magdalena Vicuna, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile.

2. All scales are metric (Ed. note).

3. The main title is followed by two explanatory subtitles: "Classification of the street plans and sections of the general plan (record of measurement and leveling), instructions for the management of the plans and original data" and Demonstrative draft of the polydons of the measurement, of the coordinate system and the disposition of the sheets of the general plan".

4. For example, the roll corresponding to the Alameda of the Delicias, in the section from Santa Lucia hill to the Church of la Gratitud Nacional on Avenida Cumming, has a length of 20 m.

5. With the base of the conserved material, that is, the index plan and the street rolls. One represents the whole and the other a part. Layers to show the logic of representation and the systemacity of the vision separate them.

6. The original street rolls corresponding to the Plano detallado de Santiago of Bertrand, are currently located in the Archivo de la Dirección de Obras of the Municipality of Santiago, Chile. The digitalization of these rolls was realized within the project FONDECYT N° 1110684 (see note 1).

7. However, it has been possible to verify the elements represented and not confirmed in the legend. In effect, the most detailed legend that clarifies the survey of these elements is the following: "In these plans, all details have been drawn fixed to the following set of signs and colors: Black numbers.-stakes / Red numbers - measurements; in drainage canals, pl. covering; r. Rail bridge; f. Background / Sepia numbers.- housing numbers/ Green numbers.- coordinates / Black lines.- building lines; with carmine line towards the interior and accompanied by dotted lines to indicate a plinth with bar fence / sepia lines - sidewalks, drainage ditches along the tajamar, etc. / Blue lines.- rails / Sepia colored letters.- pavements; emp. River stones, cobblestone, on the sidewalks; P, stone; L, slab; A, asphalt / Red squares.- gas points; with a p, paraffin. / Sepia square.- posts; TE, national telegraph; TA, American telephone; etc. / Green swaths.- trees. The grid lines have been traced at 100 in 100 meters to be able to establish connection between the various plans" (Bertrand, 1890).

8. As Manuel de Solá Morales (1981) stated: "To draw is to select, to select is interpret, to interpret is propose.".

9. This global understanding of the city was had in 1875, when Vicuna Mackenna hired Ansart to make a technical plan of Santiago, representing it at 1: 6,600 scale, which recorded political and administrative divisions, train and tram systems, important public institutions, transformation projects for the city, such as the canalization of the Mapocho River, the beltway project, Santa Lucia hill, and others.

10. Ansart describes it as following: "The overall plan will be traced at scale 1 mm / 1m, and it will indicate the dimensions of the street widths everywhere there is some variation. It will be 6 m high and 9 m long, divided in 25 sheets and there will be a smaller copy (1.2 x 1.8 m) for general uses, with the original archived to serve the outline of the building lines and new streets " (Vicuna Mackenna, 1873).

11. In this context, it would be important to consider the works over Buenos Aires by Fernando Aliata and Adrían Gorelik; on Caracas, by González Casas, Vegas and González Viso; on México, by McMichael Reese; on Río de Janeiro and Bahía, by Petti Pinheiro; as well as the contributions of Arturo Almandoz, Sánchez Gómez and Santos Pérez, among others.

12. While in 1895, Santiago recorded a population of 256,403 inhabitants and an area of 3,600 ha, in 1907 these statistics had increased to 334,724 inhabitants and 4,000 ha. In 1875, Santiago had a population of 130 thousand inhabitants and an area of 2,904 ha. In 1925, the population had increased to 600 thousand inhabitants (De Ramón, 1986).

13. The Plan of the Senators and Deputies Commitee (1912), the Plan of the Central Union of Architects by Carlos Carvajal (1912) and the Plan by Ernest Coxhead (1913), commissioned by the Chilean Council in San Francisco, United States. In the first years of the 1920's, the plans of the Central Union of Architects (1923) were released and of the journalist Carlos Pinto Durán (1924). Another example: the Transformation Plan for Santiago, by the director of Municipal Works, the engineer Manuel H. Concha (1894). This plan proposed the completion of the beltway, open 5 diagonal avenues and widen various streets, along with the incorporation of a large area of green areas for public use, using the canalization of the Mapocho river and the same proposed road lines (Gurovich, 2003).

14. Among these is the Plaza Nunoa (1895), the Plaza Vicuna Mackenna together with Santa Lucía hill (1901), the Plaza Brasil (1906), the path to the Virgen at San Cristóbal hill (1908) and Plaza Italia (1910).

15. As explained by De Ramón and Gross (1983), while the lesser streets we paved with river stones, the central avenues were paved with MacAdam asphalt.

16. In January of 1844, the new road law established in article 4° that the streets would open or the old streets would have a "clearing" of 20 varas, that is, 16.72 meters. Later, in 1847, the law authorized the Executive to carry out the leveling and paving of the streets and the outline of drainage, with the neighbors obliged to pave to the halfway line of the street, as long as it "does not exceed 8 varas and also obliged to make the drainage channel that will pass to the interior of their property". In 1864, a law of expropriation was enacted that declared the necessary sites to open Nataniel Cox street for public use, connecting it with Las Delicias, with the same width. In 1874, a general law of this type was enacted, "Ley de Calles Tajadas", due to the progressive initiative of Benjamín Vicuna Mackenna (De Ramón, 1983).

17. The Law for the Transformation of the City of Santiago of 1874, approved during the Vicuna Mackenna administration, referred to the height regulations of the buildings and their relationship to street width. It established a requirement of 12 meters maximum to the height of the buildings in existing streets or those of 10 meters wide, and in the new or extended streets a maximum height of 20 meters was established for brick or stone buildings and 15 meters for adobe or other material. On the Alameda heights up to 25 meters were allowed for public buildings. (Larraín Bravo, 1909).

18. Research project of the Vicerrectoría de Investigación, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. Artistic creation and culture, "The official plan of Santiago of 1939, and the "modern city" created by the architectural engineer Karl Brünner" (W. Strabucchi, G. Hidalgo, J. Rosas y M. Vicuna, 2013).

19. In the case of Santiago, the modern urbanization precedes modern architecture, even more if we consider that Chilean Modern architecture, according to Eliash and Moreno (1989), arrived later with respect to other countries in the region, that manifested in 1928 only as a consequence of the earthquake that same year, and with the construction of the Oberpauer building, of Larrain García Moreno, in 1929.

 

Referentes

AA.VV. Proyecto de Lei sobre Organización i Atribuciones de las Municipalidades. Ministerio del Interior de Chile, Santiago, December 24th, 1891. Available at http://bcn.cl/15am

AA.VV. Ley y ordenanza general sobre construcciones y urbanización N° 17.386. Published at Diario Oficial, Imprenta Cultura, Santiago, February 6th, 1936.

AA.VV. Ley y ordenanza general sobre construcciones y urbanización N° 18.486. Published at Diario Oficial, Imprenta Cultura, Santiago, October 10th, 1939.

ALIATA, Fernando. La ciudad regular. Arquitectura, programas e instituciones en el Buenos Aires posrevolucionario, 1821-1835. Prometeo, Universidad Nacional de Quilmes, Buenos Aires, 2006.

ANSART, Ernesto (1875). Plano de Santiago. A escala de 15 milímetros por 100 metros. Con las divisiones políticas i administrativas, los ferrocarriles urbanos i a vapor. Establecimientos de instrucción de beneficiencia i religiosos. Con los proyectos de canalización del río, camino de cintura, ferro carriles, etc. - Levantado i dibujado por el ingeniero jefe de puentes i calzadas, Ernesto Ansart, profesor de la universidad. Santiago, Chile, s.d. [Image at http://www.archivovisual.cl/plano-de-santiago-2].

BERTRAND, Alejandro. Levantamiento i formación del plano detallado de Santiago en 1889-1890. Imprenta Cervantes, Santiago, 1890. Copy at Biblioteca Nacional de Chile, system number 000082739.

CHOAY, Françoise. "El reino de lo urbano y la muerte de la ciudad". RAMOS, Ángel Martín. Lo urbano en 20 autores contemporáneos. Universidad Politécnica de Cataluna, Barcelona, 2004, p. 61-72.

COLLIER, Simon and William SATER. Historia de Chile. 1808-1994. Translation by Milena Grass. Cambridge University Press, Madrid, 1998.

CORVALÁN, Ignacio. "La ilustre representación del encargo municipal". SAAVEDRA, Miguel (ed.). El catastro urbano de Santiago. Orígenes, desarrollo y aplicaciones. Dirección de Obras Municipales, I. Municipalidad de Santiago, Santiago, 2008, p. 74-89.

DE RAMÓN, Armando and Patricio GROSS. "Santiago en el periodo 1891-1918: desarrollo urbano y medio-ambiente" [versión preliminar]. Documento de trabajo 131. Instituto de Estudios Urbanos, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, 1983.

DE RAMÓN, Armando and Patricio GROSS. Santiago de Chile: características histórico-ambientales, 1891-1924. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, 1985.

DUPUY, Gabriel. El urbanismo de las redes: teorías y métodos. Oikos-Tau, Vilassar de Mar - Barcelona, 1998.

ELIASH, Humberto and Manuel MORENO. Arquitectura y modernidad en Chile, 1925-1965. Ediciones Universidad Católica de Chile - ARQ, Santiago, 1989.

GREVE, Ernesto. Historia de la ingeniería en Chile. Editorial Universitaria, Santiago, 1938.

GUROVICH, Alberto. "La solitaria estrella: en torno a la realización del barrio cívico de Santiago de Chile, 1846-1946". Revista de Urbanismo N° 7 [online]. Facultad de Arquitectura y Urbanismo de la Universidad de Chile, Santiago, 2003. Available at http://bit.ly/19QZLvg

GUROVICH, Alberto. "Conflictos y negociaciones: la planificación urbana en el desarrollo del Gran Santiago, Chile". Revista de Urbanismo N° 2 [online]. Facultad de Arquitectura y Urbanismo de la Universidad de Chile, Santiago, 2000. Available at http://bit.ly/1cletg3

HARVEY, David. Espacios del capital: hacia una geografía crítica. Akal, Madrid, 2007.

HIDALGO, Germán and Wren STRABUCCHI. "Cartografía y paisaje: construcción de una corografía. La cartografía del valle de Santiago, 1902-1916". Santiago como valle agrícola, 1902-1916: idea de paisaje en una cartografía. Investigación de Creación y Cultura Artística 2010-2011, Santiago.

HIDALGO, Germán; ROSAS, José and Wren STRABUCCHI. "La representación cartográfica como producción de conocimiento: reflexiones técnicas en torno a la construcción del plano de Santiago de 1910". Revista ARQ N° 80 Representations. Ediciones ARQ, Santiago, 2010, p. 62-75.

LARRAIN BRAVO, Ricardo. La higiene aplicada en las construcciones: alcantarillado, agua potable, saneamiento, calefacción, ventilación. Imprenta Cervantes, Santiago, 1909.

LUQUE VALDIVIA, José. Constructores de la ciudad contemporánea: aproximación disciplinar a través de los textos. Departamento de Urbanismo de la Escuela Técnica Superior de Arquitectura, Universidad de Navarra - Editorial Dossat, Navarra, 2004.

MAINO, Valeria. Unpublished document, 2013.

MARTÍNEZ, René. Santiago de Chile: los planos de su historia. Siglos XVI a XX: de aldea a metrópolis. Facultad de Arquitectura, Urbanismo y Paisaje, Universidad Central de Chile, Santiago, 2007.

PARCERISA, Josep and José ROSAS. "El canon republicano y la distancia cinco mil". Research manuscript FONDECYT N° 1110684 Santiago 1890: la calle como soporte y tránsito hacia la modernidad. Transcripción y montaje planimétrico del catastro de calles de Alejandro Bertrand, Santiago, 2013.

PARCERISA, Josep and María RUBERT DE VENTÓS. La ciudad no es una hoja en blanco: hechos del urbanismo. Ediciones ARQ, Santiago, 2000.

PÉREZ, Fernando; ROSAS, José; and Luis VALENZUELA. "Las aguas del Centenario". Revista ARQ N° 60 Infrastructure Architecture. Ediciones ARQ, Santiago, 2005, p. 72-74.

RAJEVIC, Enrique. "Derecho y legislación urbanística en Chile". Revista de Derecho Administrativo y Económico Vol. II N° 2. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, July - December 2000, p. 527-548.

RUDOFF, Daniel. Ciudad y vivienda colectiva. Medida y estructura residencial de la forma urbana de Valparaíso, 1876-1929. Thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor en Arquitectura y Estudios Urbanos. Facultad de Arquitectura, Diseno y Estudios Urbanos, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago (work in progress).

SAAVEDRA, Miguel. "La infraestructura desde la fundación a fines de los anos treinta". AA.VV. Santiago poniente, desarrollo urbano y patrimonio. Dirección de Obras de la I. Municipalidad de Santiago, Santiago, 2000, p. 43-55.

SALAS, Álvaro. "Santiago 1850-1890. La infraestructura y la espacialidad de la calle en la ciudad premoderna". Research manuscript FONDECYT N° 1110684 Santiago 1890: la calle como soporte y tránsito hacia la modernidad. Transcripción y montaje planimétrico del catastro de calles de Alejandro Bertrand. Santiago, 2012.

SOLÁ MORALES, Manuel. La identitat del territori catalá. Les comarques. Serie Quaderns d'Arquitectura i Urbanisme Extra. Col-legi d'Arquitectes de Catalunya, Barcelona, 1981.

SOLÁ MORALES, Manuel. "El Eixample. Éxito práctico de un proyecto teórico". SOLÁ MORALES, Manuel. Diez lecciones sobre Barcelona. Ediciones Col-legi d'Arquitectes de Catalunya, Barcelona, 2008.

SORIA Y PUIG, Arturo. Cerdá: las cinco bases de la teoría general de la urbanización. Editorial Electa, Madrid, 1996.

VALDÉS VALDÉS, Ismael. La transformación de Santiago. Sociedad Imprenta Litografía Barcelona, Santiago, 1917.

VICUÑA MACKENNA, Benjamín. La transformación de Santiago. Imprenta de la Librería El Mercurio, Santiago, 1872.

VICUÑA MACKENNA, Benjamín. Un ano en la intendencia de Santiago. Imprenta Tornero i Garfias, Santiago, 1873.

ZUCCONI, Guido. La Cittá Contesa. Degli ingegnieri sanitari agli urbanisti (1885-1942). Editorial Jaca Book, Milano, 1989.


1. Wren Strabucchi. Architect, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 1984, and Ph.D. in Architecture, University of Cambridge, 2001. Since 1989 he is a professor at the UC School of Architecture. Currently he conducts an Undergraduate Design Studio and teaches at both Master in Architecture and Ph.D. in Architecture and Urban Studies programs at the UC.

2. Magdalena Vicuña. Architect, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 1999; Master in Community Planning, University of Maryland, 2004 and Doctoral candidate in Architecture and Urban Studies, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. Since 2005 she teaches and develops research at the Faculty of Architecture, Design and Urban Studies at the UC.

3. Germán Hidalgo. Architect, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 1991 and Doctor in Theory and History of Architecture, Escola Tecnica Superior d'Arquitectura de Barcelona, 2000. Since 1993 he teaches and develops research at the UC School of Architecture, being currently associate professor there.

4. José Rosas. Architect, 1976 and Master in Urban Development, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 1984; Doctor in Architecture, Escola Tecnica Superior d'Arquitectura de Barcelona, 1986. Between 1997 and 2000 he was Chair of the School of Architecture at the UC. Between 2000 and 2003 he was Chair of the Carlos Raúl Villanueva School of Architecture and coordinator of the Master in Architectural Design program at the Facultad de Arquitectura y Urbanismo from Universidad Central de Venezuela; between 2006 and 2012 he was dean of the Faculty of Architecture, Design and Urban Studies at the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. He is currently professor at the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile School of Architecture.

AA.VV. Proyecto de Lei sobre Organización i Atribuciones de las Municipalidades. Ministerio del Interior de Chile, Santiago, 24 de diciembre de 1891. Disponible en http://bcn.cl/15am        [ Links ]

AA.VV. Ley y ordenanza general sobre construcciones y urbanización N° 17.386. Publicada en el Diario Oficial, Imprenta Cultura, Santiago, 6 de febrero de 1936.         [ Links ]

AA.VV. Ley y ordenanza general sobre construcciones y urbanización N° 18.486. Publicada en el Diario Oficial, Imprenta Cultura, Santiago, 10 de octubre de 1939.         [ Links ]

ALIATA, Fernando. La ciudad regular. Arquitectura, programas e instituciones en el Buenos Aires posrevolucionario, 1821-1835. Prometeo, Universidad Nacional de Quilmes, Buenos Aires, 2006.         [ Links ]

ANSART, Ernesto (1875). Plano de Santiago. A escala de 15 milímetros por 100 metros. Con las divisiones políticas i administrativas, los ferrocarriles urbanos i a vapor. Establecimientos de instrucción de beneficiencia i religiosos. Con los proyectos de canalización del río, camino de cintura, ferro carriles, etc. - Levantado i dibujado por el ingeniero jefe de puentes i calzadas, Ernesto Ansart, profesor de la universidad. Santiago, Chile, s.d. [Imagen en http://www.archivovisual.cl/plano-de-santiago-2]         [ Links ].

BERTRAND, Alejandro. Levantamiento i formación del plano detallado de Santiago en 1889-1890. Imprenta Cervantes, Santiago, 1890. Ejemplar conservado en la Biblioteca Nacional de Chile, número de sistema 000082739.         [ Links ]

CHOAY, Françoise. "El reino de lo urbano y la muerte de la ciudad". RAMOS, Ángel Martín. Lo urbano en 20 autores contemporáneos. Universidad Politécnica de Cataluna, Barcelona, 2004, p. 61-72.         [ Links ]

COLLIER, Simon y William SATER. Historia de Chile. 1808-1994. Traducción de Milena Grass. Cambridge University Press, Madrid, 1998.         [ Links ]

CORVALÁN, Ignacio. "La ilustre representación del encargo municipal". SAAVEDRA, Miguel (ed.), El catastro urbano de Santiago. Orígenes, desarrollo y aplicaciones. Dirección de Obras Municipales, I. Municipalidad de Santiago, Santiago, 2008, p. 74-89.         [ Links ]

DE RAMÓN, Armando y Patricio GROSS. "Santiago en el periodo 1891-1918: desarrollo urbano y medio-ambiente" [versión preliminar]. Documento de trabajo 131. Instituto de Estudios Urbanos, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, 1983.         [ Links ]

DE RAMÓN, Armando y Patricio gross. Santiago de Chile: características histórico-ambientales, 1891-1924. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, 1985.         [ Links ]

DUPUY, Gabriel. El urbanismo de las redes: teorías y métodos. Oikos-Tau, Vilassar de Mar - Barcelona, 1998.         [ Links ]

ELIASH, Humberto y Manuel MORENO. Arquitectura y modernidad en Chile, 1925-1965. Ediciones Universidad Católica de Chile - ARQ, Santiago, 1989.         [ Links ]

GREVE, Ernesto. Historia de la ingeniería en Chile. Editorial Universitaria, Santiago, 1938.         [ Links ]

GUROVICH, Alberto. "La solitaria estrella: en torno a la realización del barrio cívico de Santiago de Chile, 1846-1946". Revista de Urbanismo N° 7 [En línea]. Facultad de Arquitectura y Urbanismo de la Universidad de Chile, Santiago, 2003. Disponible en http://bit.ly/19QZLvg        [ Links ]

GUROVICH, Alberto. "Conflictos y negociaciones: la planificación urbana en el desarrollo del Gran Santiago, Chile". Revista de Urbanismo N° 2 [En línea]. Facultad de Arquitectura y Urbanismo de la Universidad de Chile, Santiago, 2000. Disponible en http://bit.ly/1cletg3        [ Links ]

HARVEY, David. Espacios del capital: hacia una geografía crítica. Akal, Madrid, 2007.         [ Links ]

HIDALGO, Germán y Wren STRABUCCHI. "Cartografía y paisaje: construcción de una corografía. La cartografía del valle de Santiago, 1902-1916". Santiago como valle agrícola, 1902-1916: idea de paisaje en una cartografía. Investigación de Creación y Cultura Artística 2010-2011.         [ Links ]

HIDALGO, Germán; ROSAS, José; y Wren STRABUCCHI. "La representación cartográfica como producción de conocimiento: reflexiones técnicas en torno a la construcción del plano de Santiago de 1910". En Revista ARQ N° 80 Representaciones. Ediciones ARQ, Santiago, 2010, p. 62-75.         [ Links ]

LARRAIN BRAVO, Ricardo. La higiene aplicada en las construcciones: alcantarillado, agua potable, saneamiento, calefacción, ventilación. Imprenta Cervantes, Santiago, 1909.         [ Links ]

LUQUE VALDIVIA, José. Constructores de la ciudad contemporánea: aproximación disciplinar a través de los textos. Departamento de Urbanismo de la Escuela Técnica Superior de Arquitectura, Universidad de Navarra - Editorial Dossat, Navarra, 2004.         [ Links ]

MAINO, Valeria. Documento inédito, 2013.         [ Links ]

MARTÍNEZ, René. Santiago de Chile: los planos de su historia. Siglos XVI a XX: de aldea a metrópolis. Facultad de Arquitectura, Urbanismo y Paisaje, Universidad Central de Chile, Santiago, 2007.         [ Links ]

PARCERISA, Josep y José ROSAS. "El canon republicano y la distancia cinco mil". Manuscrito de investigación FONDECYT N° 1110684 Santiago 1890: la calle como soporte y tránsito hacia la modernidad. Transcripción y montaje planimétrico del catastro de calles de Alejandro Bertrand, Santiago, Chile, 2013.         [ Links ]

PARCERISA, Josep y María RUBERT DE VENTÓS. La ciudad no es una hoja en blanco: hechos del urbanismo. Ediciones ARQ, Santiago, 2000.         [ Links ]

PÉREZ, Fernando; ROSAS, José; y Luis VALENZUELA. "Las aguas del Centenario". Revista ARQ No 60 Arquitectura de infraestructura. Ediciones ARQ, Santiago, 2005, p. 72-74.         [ Links ]

RAJEVIC, Enrique. "Derecho y legislación urbanística en Chile". Revista de Derecho Administrativo y Económico, Vol. II N° 2. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, julio-diciembre de 2000, p. 527-548.         [ Links ]

RUDOFF, Daniel. Ciudad y vivienda colectiva. Medida y estructura residencial de la forma urbana de Valparaíso, 1876-1929. Tesis para optar al grado de Doctor en Arquitectura y Estudios Urbanos. Facultad de Arquitectura, Diseño y Estudios Urbanos, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago (en elaboración).         [ Links ]

SAAVEDRA, Miguel. "La infraestructura desde la fundación a fines de los años treinta". AA.VV. Santiago poniente, desarrollo urbano y patrimonio. Dirección de Obras de la I. Municipalidad de Santiago, Santiago, 2000, p. 43-55.         [ Links ]

SALAS, Álvaro. "Santiago 1850-1890. La infraestructura y la espacialidad de la calle en la ciudad premoderna". Manuscrito desarrollado en el proyecto FONDECYT N° 1110684, Santiago 1890: la calle como soporte y tránsito hacia la modernidad. Transcripción y montaje planimétrico del catastro de calles de Alejandro Bertrand. Santiago, 2012.         [ Links ]

SOLÁ Morales, Manuel. La identitat del territori catalá. Les comarques. Serie Quaderns d'Arquitectura i Urbanisme Extra. Col-legi d'Arquitectes de Catalunya, Barcelona, 1981.         [ Links ]

SOLÁ Morales, Manuel. "El Eixample. Éxito práctico de un proyecto teórico". SOLÁ Morales, Manuel. Diez lecciones sobre Barcelona. Ediciones Col-legi d'Arquitectes de Catalunya, Barcelona, 2008.         [ Links ]

SORIA Y PUIG, Arturo. Cerdá: las cinco bases de la teoría general de la urbanización. Editorial Electa, Madrid, 1996.         [ Links ]

VALDÉS VALDÉS, Ismael. La transformación de Santiago. Sociedad Imprenta Litografía Barcelona, Santiago, 1917.         [ Links ]

VICUÑA MACKENNA, Benjamín. La transformación de Santiago. Imprenta de la Librería El Mercurio, Santiago, 1872.         [ Links ]

VICUÑA MACKENNA, Benjamín. Un año en la intendencia de Santiago. Imprenta Tornero i Garfias, Santiago, 1873.         [ Links ]

ZUCCONI, Guido. La Cittá Contesa. Degli ingegnieri sanitari agli urbanisti (1885-1942). Editorial Jaca Book, Milán, 1989.         [ Links ]

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