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Investigaciones marinas

versión On-line ISSN 0717-7178

Investig. mar. v.30 n.1 supl.Symp Valparaíso ago. 2002

http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-71782002030100080 

1992 El Niño Effect over some
Population Parameters of Northern
Anchovy from the Gulf of California: A
Comparison with Anchovies from the
California and Humboldt Currents

Yanira Green Ruiz1, Jorge Oliva2,
Nancy Lo3, Paul Smith3,
Tim Baumgartner4

1SAGARPA-Instituto Nacional de la Pesca. Centro
Regional de Investigación Pesquera-Mazatlán, Calzada
Sábalo Cerritos S/N, Col. Estero el Yugo C.P. 82010.
Mazatlán, Sinaloa, México,
E-mail: cripmaz@red2000.com.mx
2Instituto de Fomento Pesquero (IFOP), Arturo Prat
Sitio No. 2, Iquique, Chile, E-mail: joliva@ifop.cl
3National Marine Fisheries Service-NOAA, 8604,
shored drive, La Jolla, CA 92037.USA,
E-mail: nlo@ucsd.edu
4Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación
Superior de Ensenada, Km. 107 carretera Tijuana-
Ensenada, Ensenada Baja California, México,
E-mail: tbaumgar@cicese.mx

The anchovy Engraulix mordax GIRARD 1856 is distributed across the northeast Pacific. Before l985, it had been recorded from Queen Charlotte Island, Canada to Cabo San Lucas, Mexico, but this year, 2071 metric tons of this specie were caught in the Gulf of California, indicating that its distribution area has been extended to this water body.

From British Columbia to Bahía Magdalena the main spawning region is located between Point Conception and Punta San Juanico. It extends seaward by between 100 and 200 nm. In this area the preferred temperatures of spawning for anchovy range between 11.5 to 16.5 °C with a maximum at about 14 °C.

In the Gulf of California, the spawning area of E. mordax is distributed from coast to coast between the North of Angel de la Guarda Island and Yavaros, Son., associated with upwelling zones. During the l992 El Niño it was located mainly in the big islands region. This specie spawns preferably in waters with temperatures between 15 °C and 17 °C, but in 1992 it spawned in waters of 16 to 21°C. Anchovy distribution extends northward in a warm event, such as the "El Niño" of 1992, and moves southward when the temperature decreases. Spawnings occur between autumn and winter in the Gulf of California, reaching higher levels in December and January.

Anchovy E. ringens JENYNS, 1842, is found in the Southeast Pacific, from Punta Agujas in Northern Peru to Chiloe in Southern Chile, extending 100 nm seaward, with the main concentration in the first 50 nm. The spawning area in Chile is located between 18º S and 26º S, extending up to 60 nm seaward, although major concentration areas are found in the first 15 nm. The area between Iquique and Tocopilla is remarkable in that it is associated with Loa River discharge. Normally, spawning occurs in water temperatures between 14 and 16 ºC. During the 1997 "El Niño", spawning occured at the south of its normal area in a temperature range of 17 to 19 ºC. Spawning in the North of Chile occurs mainly in Winter and Spring, between July and October. It reaches higher levels in August and September.

In order to assess the spawning biomass, E. mordax and E. ringens have been widely studied in the California and Humboldt currents respectively. Otherwise, information on E. mordax in the Gulf of California is poor. It is necessary to increase and improve this knowledge in order to make comparisons with the knowledge of these anchovy in other areas around the world and with other species of small pelagic fish with those that are concurrent in the Gulf of California.

Northern anchovy's habitat in the Gulf of California is smaller that other world habitats since the Baja California Peninsula acts as a physical barrier. In the present work the 1992 El Niño effect on some population parameters of the northern anchovy from the Gulf of California is analyzed and the results are compared with those obtained for the anchovy from the California Current in the El Niño of 1982-1983 and with those obtained for the anchovy from Chile during the 1992 and 1997 El Niño events.

The spawning area, daily egg production, and egg instant mortality rate are necessary parameters for the estimation of spawning biomass of pelagic fish by the daily egg production method. These parameters were estimated for E. mordax in the California Current from 1980 to 1985 and from 1990 to 1994 and for E. ringens in Chile in 1992, from 1995 to 1997, in 1999 and in 2000. These parameters depend on the region and have an interannual variation. Their values for northern anchovy in the California current and Gulf of California, and for E. ringens in the Humboldt current are presented in Table 1.

000Table 1.

System

Year

Z

Po
Eggs/ 0.05 m2/day

Tows

Positive Tows

Area
(Km2)

Density of tows Tows/ Km2

Data Sources

CC

1980

0.450

11.080

961

769

118800

0.0081

Piquelle and Stauffer, 1980

CC

1981

0.140

7.960

690

335

119750

0.0058

Piquelle and ,

CC

1982

0.160

3.320

992

592

203400

0.0049

Piquelle and Hewitt, 1982

CC

1983

0.180

5.550

850

482

155500

0.0055

Piquelle and Hewitt, 1983

CC

1984

0.170

3.790

938

384

171300

0.0055

Hewit, 1984

CC

1985

0.290

4.770

809

547

177400

0.0046

Bindman, 1985

GC

1990

0.249

2.97

200

32

67225

0.0030

Cotero & Green-Ruiz, 1991

GC

1991

0.348

7.49

375

79

64654

0.0058

Green-Ruiz, 2001

GC

1992

0.318

4.7

320

78

54879

0.0058

Green-Ruiz, 2001

GC

1993

0.355

2.33

342

20

68084

0.0050

Green-Ruiz, 2001

GC

1994

0.200

12.6

382

132

65511

0.0058

Green-Ruiz, 2001

HC

1992

0.818

39.190

542

212

17055

0.032

Oliva et al., 2001

HC

1995

0.593

31.307

578

208

18137

0.032

Oliva et al., 2001

HC

1996

0.381

26.902

752

176

18353

0.041

Oliva et al., 2001

HC

1997

0.270

23.754

800

209

19627

0.041

Oliva et al., 2001

HC

1999

0.663

25.713

598

133

27.374

0.022

Oliva et al., 2001

HC

2000

1.050

42.167

502

212

19.539

0.026

Oliva et al., 2001

In Chile and in the California Current the egg instant mortality rate is higher when egg production is higher.

During El Niño events in the California Current in 1982, Gulf of California in 1992 and Chile in 1997, daily egg production decreased, increasing when normal conditions were reestablished and reaching the maximum level during the template years (1980, 1994 and 2000 respectively).

In the northern hemisphere, the tow density for the Gulf of California was smaller than that for the California Current System, and both were less that the tow density for the southern portion of the Humboldt Current.

The estimation of the population parameters analyzed here depend on the egg spatial distribution, sample size, sampling method and estimation procedures, however the anchovy response to El Niño events is remarkable in all three zones.

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