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Revista de biología marina y oceanografía

versión On-line ISSN 0718-1957

Rev. biol. mar. oceanogr. vol.45  supl.1 Valparaíso dic. 2010

http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-19572010000400007 

Revista de Biología Marina y Oceanografía
Vol. 45, S1: 589-617, diciembre de 2010
Article

ARTÍCULOS

Taxonomy and biogeography of the coastal fishes of Juan Fernández Archipelago and Desventuradas Islands, Chile

Taxonomía y biogeografía de los peces costeros del Archipiélago de Juan Fernández y de las islas Desventuradas, Chile

 

Brian S. Dyer1 and Mark W. Westneat2

1Escuela de Recursos Naturales, Universidad del Mar, Angamos 680, Reñaca, Viña del Mar, Chile
2Curator of Zoology, Field Museum of Natural History, 1400 S Lakeshore Dr., Chicago, IL 60605-2496, USA
brian.dyer@udelmar.cl


RESUMEN

Las islas Desventuradas (San Félix y San Ambrosio) y del Archipiélago de Juan Fernández (Robinson Crusoe y Alejandro Selkirk) son islas oceánicas de origen volcánico ubicadas en el Pacífico Sudeste, frente a Chile. Sobre la base de material recolectado desde 1997 hasta la fecha, revisiones de colecciones de las expediciones del R/V Anton Bruun y actualizaciones taxonómicas, la fauna de peces litorales del Archipélago de Juan Fernández y las islas Desventuradas tienen un total de 52 especies, con 41 y 43 especies, respectivamente. Los peces costeros endémicos de Juan Fernández son solamente cinco (12,2%) y tres son las especies registradas aquí como nuevas para las islas (Gymnothorax cf. obesus, Gnathophis sp., Suezichthys sp.). Las Desventuradas tienen solamente dos especies endémicas (4,6%) y cuatro son los nuevos registros (Scorpaenodes englerti, Maxillicosta reticulata, Suezichthys sp., Aseraggodes bahamondei). El reducido número de especies endémicas para Juan Fernández comparado con trabajos previos (15 especies) se debe a que muchas resultaron ser endémicas de ambos grupos de islas (22 especies = 42,3% total peces litorales), apoyando la propuesta que ambos grupos de islas debieran formar una sola unidad biogeográfica. La extensión oriental de la región Indo Pacífico Oeste para incluir la cordillera de Nazca, las islas Desventuradas y Juan Fernández encuentra apoyo en este trabajo. La afinidad zoogeográfica entre las Desventuradas y las islas del Pacífico Oeste (Isla de Pascua hasta Australia) incluye 16 especies, agregando cinco nuevos registros a listas anteriores. Filogenias de tres géneros señalan un centro de origen en el Pacífico Oeste, con uno o más eventos de dispersión hacia las islas Desventuradas y Juan Fernández. Este patrón de dispersión puede repetirse en otros siete géneros de pocas especies y relativamente restringidas en distribución. Solo una filogenia (Odontesthes) propone un origen continental con una dispersión hacia el Oeste, sin embargo otros tres géneros parecen tener este mismo patrón de dispersión.

Palabras clave: Diversidad, endemismo, Pacífico Sudeste


ABSTRACT

The Desventuradas Islands (San Félix and San Ambrosio) and Juan Fernández Archipelago (Robinson Crusoe and Alejandro Selkirk) are oceanic islands of volcanic origin located in the southeastern Pacific off Chile. Based on new material collected since 1997, revision of the R/V Anton Bruun expeditions collections, and a taxonomic update, the coastal fish fauna of Juan Fernández Archipelago and Desventuradas Islands found a total of 52 species, with 41 and 43 species, respectively. The number of coastal fish species recorded herein as endemic for Juan Fernández is only five (12,2%) and three species are new records (Gymnothorax cf. obesus, Gnathophis sp., Suezichthys sp). The Desventuradas Islands have only two endemic species (4,6%) and four species are new records (Scorpaenodes englerti, Maxillicosta reticulata, Suezichthys sp., Aseraggodes bahamondei). The reduced number of endemic species for the Juan Fernández Islands as compared with previous accounts (15 species) is the result that more species were found to be endemic to both islands groups (22 species = 42,3% all coastal fishes), suggesting these two island groups should be considered a single biogeographic unit. The eastern extension of the Indo West Pacific Region to include the Nazca Ridge, Desventuradas and Juan Fernández Islands is supported herein. The zoogeographical affinities between Desventuradas and western Pacific Islands (Easter Island to Australia), includes 16 species, adding five new species to previous lists. Relationships of three genera indicate a Western Pacific origin with one or more dispersal events to the Desventuradas and Juan Fernández Islands. Another seven genera, with relatively few species and restricted distribution, may have this same pattern. Only one phylogenetic study indicates a continental origin with a westward dispersal (Odontesthes), however another three genera may have this same pattern of dispersal.

Key words: Diversity, endemism, southeastern Pacific


INTRODUCTION

The fish fauna of the southeastern Pacific off Chile is a composite of subtropical eastern and western Pacific, southwestern Atlantic, and southern Australia-New Zealand subantarctic faunas (Pequeño 2000).  Especially interesting zoogeographically are two island groups (Fig. 1), the northern one located about 850 km West of Chañaral (Desventuradas Islands: San Félix Is. 26°15’S, 80°W; San Ambrosio Is. 26°20’S, 79°55’W) and the southern one about 600 km West of Valparaíso (Juan Fernández Archipelago: Robinson Crusoe Is. [ex Masatierra] 33°40’S, 78°50’W; Alejandro Selkirk Is. [ex Masafuera], 33°45’S, 80°45’W). Juan Fernández Archipelago was declared National Park in 1935 and Reserve of the Biosphere in 1977. 

Figure 1. Map of the Chilean oceanic islands of Desventuradas and Juan Fernández Archipelago (SHOA 1994)
Figura 1.
Mapa de las islas oceánicas chilenas Desventuradas y del Archipiélago de Juan Fernández (SHOA 1994)

 

The volcanic origin of these islands along "hot-spot lines” of the Nazca Plate are of Plio-Pleistocene age (González-Ferrán 1987).  Potassium-argon dating of San Ambrosio Island gives a date of nearly 3 million years ago (m.y.a.) (González-Ferrán 1987:50) whereas Juan Fernández Islands range between 1-4 m.y.a. (Stuessy et al. 1984).  The Desventuradas are the eastern outcrop of the “Easter hot line” that is connected by submarine seamouts to Easter Island and Salas y Gómez Island.  The Juan Fernández Ridge extends from Alejandro Selkirk Island to the more eastern O’Higgins seamount, 60 nautical miles west of Valparaíso.  The recent emergence of these islands does not impose a time limit on the connectivity of fish fauna for these islands as it does with the terrestrial flora and fauna, but instead may be a key element in the historical perspective to the biogeographical interpretation of the faunal composition of these island groups.

The oceanographic regime of these islands is also of biogeographic interest. Both island groups are located between the coastal and oceanic branches of the subantarctic Perú or Humboldt Current which is split by the subtropical Peruvian countercurrent (Fig. 2). The surface temperatures are not subantarctic however because the sub-surface Peruvian countercurrent extends farther south than Juan Fernández and warms the surface waters notably between spring and autumn (Arana 1987). This Peruvian countercurrent is a possible migration route between these islands, either by adults or during a pelagic larval phase.

Figure 2. Map of the major currents affecting the oceanic islands of Desventuradas and Juan Fernández. Modified from Arana (1987:330)
Figura 2.
Mapa de las principales corrientes que afectan las islas oceánicas de Juan Fernández y Desventuradas. Modificado de Arana (1987:330)

 

The Juan Fernández Islands have been surveyed substantially more often than the Desventuradas, most probably because of their proximity to Valparaíso and San Antonio, Chile’s main ports. Most natural history studies show Juan Fernández to have a relatively high degree of endemism: 60-70% vascular plants (Hoffman & Marticorena 1987, Stuessy et al. 1992), 29-32% algae (Santelices 1987, 1992), 60-70% arthropods (Peña 1987), 71% mollusks and 18% decapods (Roszbaczylo & Castilla 1987).  The Desventuradas Islands, on the other hand, are not along any navigational route, hence scientists have visited them only sporadically and for a short period of time allowing for only a few small collections. Endemism in Desventuradas is lower in general: one species of algae (7%; Meneses & Hoffmann 1994), 17 species of arthropods (16%; Peña 1987), 14 species of terrestrial plants (74%; Hoffmann & Marticorena 1987). 

The Desventuradas have had only three proper fish-collecting expeditions involving ichthyologists: the Anton Bruun cruises 12 (Wisner 1966) and 13 (Cornell Collection), and Pequeño & Lamilla (2000). Wisner (1966:4) originally estimated a total of 27 fish species collected, though this number has actually increased to 31 species according to the holdings at Scripps Institute of Oceanography (SIO) (Pequeño & Lamilla 2000).  Pequeño & Lamilla (2000) latest count of coastal fishes was 43 species, of which three are endemic to the Desventuradas Islands and 28 (65%) are found also in Juan Fernández.  Sepúlveda (1987) emphasized the fish fauna of the Juan Fernández Islands had not been studied as a whole since Skottsberg’s Swedish expedition of 1908.  About 140 fish species were recorded for the area around the Juan Fernández Archipelago, of which 58 were coastal species and eleven (19%) endemic (Sepúlveda & Pequeño 1985, Sepúlveda 1987, Meléndez & Villalba 1992). The latest revision of the Juan Fernández coastal fish fauna notes 51 species (Pequeño & Sáez 2000). However, 14 species are endemic to Juan Fernández Islands (27% of the coastal fish fauna) and Desventuradas Islands (49% of the coastal fish fauna).  Taken both island groups together as a biogeographical unit, the combined endemism is of roughly 40%. These endemics are congeneric with fishes from the Pacific Plate, Australia-New Zealand, or continental South America.

The main purpose of this paper was to present an updated faunal list of the coastal fishes of the Juan Fernández and Desventuradas Islands resulting from an expedition funded by National Geographic Society in 1997, to publish the first color photographs of most of these fishes, and comment on the biogeographic implications of their distributions. A better understanding of the aquatic flora and fauna, and their seasonal variation, will provide a more solid basis for a rational exploitation of the fishery resources already in practice around these islands (fishes and lobsters), contribute to the development of alternative income sources such as ecotourism (Cuevas & Van Leersum 2001) and, information that is required for the creation of an aquatic reserve or marine park (Castilla & Oliva 1987).

 

MATERIAL AND METHODS

An expedition was undertaken aboard the M/V Carlos Porter for the period of February 17- March 12, 1997.  Collections were made at San Ambrosio Island from February 20-23, at San Félix from February 24-28, at Robinson Crusoe Island from February 28 to March 9, and at Alexander Selkirk Island on March 5-6. All material collected was subdivided between participating institutions: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago (FMNH: http://emuweb.fieldmuseum.org/fish/Query.php), Universidad del Mar (UMAR: www.ern.udelmar.cl/investigacion/ictiologia/coleccionpeces.htm), Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Santiago (MNHNC; Meléndez & Cornejo 2001) and Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia (IZUA-P, destroyed by fire in 2008). Some specimens were studied from the Anton Bruun cruises 12 and 13 deposited at Cornell University (CU), University of Harvard’s Museum of Comparative Zoology (MCZ), and Scripps Institute of Oceanography (SIO). Additional material was collected from Robinson Crusoe and Alejandro Selkirk Islands in 1999 and 2000, respectively, all specimens of which are deposited at MNHNC. Material examined by us is listed in Table 1.

Table 1. List of fish examined
Tabla 1.
Lista de los peces examinados

 

The primary method for collection of fishes was scuba diving at depths of 5 to 35 m and the release of small (1 kg) bags of powdered derris root. Some collections were taken also at intertidal pools.  Other methods for collecting fishes included small mesh gill nets deployed on rocky reefs and monitored by scuba divers, small hand spears and hand nets, and collecting from the deck of the ship by hook and line, dip netting and pulling a small 10 ft trawl down to depths of 100 m.  In addition, color photographs were taken underwater (by Marcel Duhart, Marcelo Rossi and Álvaro Sepúlveda) and in aquaria (by authors). Muscle tissue samples from most of the fishes collected, enabling interested researchers to analyze evolutionary relationships using DNA.

Taxonomy follows Eschmeyer (2010), except recent changes that have made it into the periodic updates of the online database1 and is presented in Table 2. Biogeographic accounts consider coastal fishes only as presented in Table 3.

Table 2. Systematic list of coastal fishes from Juan Fernández and Desventuradas Islands
Tabla 2.
Lista sistemática de peces costeros de las islas de Juan Fernández y Desventuradas


 

Table 3. Distribution of coastal fishes and sources of information. AR=Argentina; AU=Australia; cCL=continental Chile; DES=Desventuradas; GI= Galápagos Is.; JF= Juan Fernández; KI=Kermadec Is.; LH=Lord Howe; NI=Norfolk Is.; NZ=New Zealand; PE=Perú; PI=Pitcairn Is.; SA= South America; sAU= southern Australia; S&G=Salas y Gómez Is.; UR=Uruguay
Tabla 3. Distribución de peces costeros y fuentes de información. AR=Argentina; AU=Australia; cCL=Chile continental; DES=Desventuradas; GI= Is. Galápagos; JF=Juan Fernández; KI= Is. Kermadec; LH=Lord Howe; NI= Is. Norfolk; NZ=Nueva Zelandia; PE=Perú; PI= Is. Pitcairn; SA= Sud América; sAU=sur de Australia; S&G=Is. Salas y Gómez; UR=Uruguay


 

 

RESULTS

Systematics

A total of 55 species are recorded below (Table 2), of which 52 species were confirmed to inhabit the coastal waters around the Juan Fernández and Desventuradas Islands, with 41 and 43 species in each, respectively (Table 3). Juan Fernández has 5 endemic species (12.2%; Sicyases brevirostris, Odontesthes gracilis, Chironemus delfini, Parapercis dockinsi, and Paratrimma nigrimenta); three new records for these islands are Gymnothorax cf. obesus, Gnathophis sp. and Suezichthys sp.; Desventuradas Islands have only 2 endemics (4.6%; Chromis meridiana and Paratrimma urospila) and 4 new records: Scorpaenodes englerti, Maxillicosta reticulata, Suezichthys sp., and Aseraggodes bahamondei.

The following account of species includes only those collected during the IOC-97 expedition, plus additional species collected since then by one of the authors (BD) and for which specimens exist in collections and their identifications verified. The following species have not been included in the list below or Table 2: Mendosoma fernandezianus (Latridae) is considered nomin dubium by Gon & Heemstra (1987); Paralabrax humeralis, Micropogon fasciatus, Chromis crusma, Trachurus murphyi, and Paralichthys adspersus are incidental species on the islands from the continental coast; Scolecenchelys profundorum (IZUA 1525) and Physiculus longicavis (IZUA 1678) are deep water species from the Nazca Ridge collected at Desventuradas Islands only; Trachypoma macracanthus (IZUA 1711, Rojas & Pequeño 1996, 1998a,c) was not collected by us; and Pseudocaranx dentex is a misidentification of P. chilensis. The authors were unable to corroborate Pentaceros capensis, Synodus capricornensis, and Kyphosus cinerascens (all cited as present in Desventuradas Islands by Pequeño & Lamilla 2000) as collected at any of these islands and they are not considered in the systematic part of this study.

 

SQUALIDAE

Dogfishes / Tollos

Squalus mitsukurii Jordan & Snyder in Jordan &  Fowler, 1903

Squalus mitsukurii Jordan & Snyder in Jordan & Fowler 1903:629. Type locality: Misaki, Japan.

This species is quite abundant in Juan Fernández, at least in austral summer, as evidenced by gill-net catches (Arana 2000). Female specimens collected at San Ambrosio Island all contained many embryos, indicating they probably reproduce at these islands as reported for Juan Fernández by Pequeño & Toledo (1994).

 

CONGRIDAE

Conger eels / anguilas

Gnathophis cf. smithi Karmovskaya, 1990. Fig. 3

Gnathophis smithi Karmovskaya 1990: 767 Type Locality: E. Pacific, 25º43’S, 85º22’W, 200-185 m.

Gnathophis parini Karmovskaya, 1990

Gnathophis parini Karmovskaya 1990: 764 Type Locality: E. Pacific, 25º34’S, 89º09’W, 540-560 m.

This species was described based on specimens collected at the juncture of the Nazca and Salas & Gómez ridges at depths over 100 m. A specimen of 371 mm TL was collected 20 m deep by hand during a night dive in Robinson Crusoe Island (UMAR 251) and another of 800 mm TL was collected at dusk at 50 m by hook and line. It is attributed to this species based on the black margin of the median dorsal fins and 170 anal fin rays, however, its anterior lateral line pores are ventral (except for the second pore) as in G. parini. The other specimen of Gnathophis collected at Robinson Crusoe Island was identified as G. catalinensis (SIO65-658: 371 mm TL). Species of this genus are nocturnal and appear to be resistant to rotenone or hide further when it is applied, which may explain why so few specimens have been collected. This will be treated as one species for the biogeographic analysis.

Figure 3. Species of the fish families Congridae, Muraenidae, Ophichthidae, Gonorynchidae, Moridae, Ophidiidae, Antennariidae, and Gobiesocidae. Underwater photo of G. porphyreus by A. Sepúlveda
Figura 3.
Especies de peces de las familias Congridae, Muraenidae, Ophichthidae, Gonorynchidae, Moridae, Ophidiidae, Antennariidae y Gobiesocidae. Foto submarina de G. porphyreus por A. Sepúlveda

 

 

MURAENIDAE

Moray eels / Morenas

Gymnothorax porphyreus (Guichenot, 1848). Fig. 3.

Murenophis porphyreus Guichenot in Gay 1848:342. Type locality: Chile

?Muraena chilensis Günther, 1871. Type Locality: Chile.

Gymnothorax wieneri Sauvage, 1883. Type Locality: Chile, Perú.

Gymnothorax obscurirostris Rendahl, 1921. Type Locality: Easter Island.

This species has been described in detail by Randall & McCosker (1975:23) for Easter Island and by Meléndez & Villalba (1992) for the Juan Fernández Islands. It is certainly the most common eel in both island groups surveyed by us and ubiquitous in its aggressive display behavior. Its coloration is mostly dark brown irregular blotches over a pale yellow background. Distributional range is from Lord Howe and Norfolk islands in the West Pacific (Francis & Randall 1993) to continental Perú and Chile in the East.

Gymnothorax australicola Lavenberg, 1992. Fig. 3.

Gymnothorax australicola Lavenberg 1992:59. Type Locality: Easter Island, Anakena Cove.

This species was described for the light brown, plain-colored morays with a black eye ring, white blotches around the last two infraorbital pores and last three mandibular pores, and a single branchial pore. Known from Lord Howe Island (Francis 1993), Rapa, Ducie Atoll (Pitcairn Islands), Easter Island, San Félix and San Ambrosio Islands (FMNH 107251-107254, MNHNC P7154).

Gymnothorax bathiphylus Randall & McCosker, 1975.

Gymnothorax bathiphylus Randall & McCosker 1975:20. Type Locality: Easter Island, off Mt. Tere Vaka.

Collection of two more specimens in Desventuradas (FMNH 107255, 107467) complements this species range extension to the East presented by Pequeño & Lamilla (1996a). Described in detail by Randall & McCosker (1975:20), it is distinguished from the other morays on Desventuradas by its light yellowish-gray background with irregularly-placed roundish dark blotches. Visible, small black dots of lateral line pores around and behind head. Found in Easter Island and Desventuradas Islands.

Gymnothorax cf. obesus (Whitley, 1932). Fig. 3.

Uropterygius obesus Whitley 1932:329. Type locality: off Montague Island, NSW, Australia.

Gymnothorax griffini Whitley & Phillipps 1939:229. Type locality: White Island, Bay of Plenty, New Zealand.

Two large specimens collected in lobster traps 30-40 m deep at Robinson Crusoe Island (FMNH 107468) and Santa Clara Island (UMAR 125). They are similar in shape, size and pattern of speckling to G. obesus from Southern Australia, northern New Zealand and Kermadec Islands (Gomon et al. 1994:207).  Teeth in jaw roughly 25 in single series, anterior enlarged fang-like and depressible; vomerine teeth small. Mouth large (44% head length) does not fully close, reaching well beyond eyes. Lower jaw slightly prognathous, upper jaw blunt. Eyes small, roughly the same size as branchial opening, and continuous with surrounding skin. Branchial opening slanted posteriorly, below midline. Two branchial pores, three mandibular pores, four suborbital pores, and posterior nasal opening above and in front of eye. Head length roughly 7 times total length; preanal length about equal to tail length, posterior third laterally compressed. No specimens found recorded from Desventuradas Islands.

 

OPHICHTHIDAE

Worm eels / Anguila fideo

Scolecenchelys chilensis (McCosker, 1970). Fig. 3.

Muraenichthys chilensis McCosker 1970:509. Type locality: Robinson Crusoe Island, South of Pta. Suroeste. 33°37’15”S, 78°55’05”W.

Easily distinguished from other eels of the islands in being long, slender and living in the sand and debris between rocks and crevices. Body of a uniformly tanned to light brown color. Snout long, upper jaw prognathous, and lower jaw reaching the anterior nostrils. Both nostrils are along side of upper jaw, projecting ventrally. Only recently Castle & McCosker (1999) recognized this group of myrophine worm eels as a genus distinct from Muraenichthys, though no phylogenetic hypothesis was provided. Found in both Juan Fernández and Desventuradas Islands.

 

GONORYNCHIDAE

Sandfish

Gonorynchus greyi (Richardson, 1845). Fig. 3.

Rynchana greyi Richardson 1845:45. Type locality: W. Australia and Port Nicholson, Cook’s Strait, New Zealand.

Gonorynchus parvimanus Ogilby 1911:34. Type locality: Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia.

Predominantly found in waters off the east and west coasts of Australia (Grande 1999), this species was trawled at a depth of 100 m over sandy bottom between the St. Peterborough Cathedral Rock and San Félix Island (FMNH 107244), presenting another example of extreme eastern range extension for an Indo-Pacific or Western Pacific group.

 

MORIDAE

Morid cods / Congrios

Lotella fernandeziana Rendahl, 1921. Fig. 3.

Lotella fernandeziana Rendahl 1921:53. Type locality: Masatierra (Robinson Crusoe), Juan Fernández Islands.

Abundant in most rotenone collections made on both island groups, recently recorded at Desventuradas (Meléndez & Pequeño 1996) but not recorded in Nazca Ridge (Parin 1991) or Easter Island collections (Di Salvo et al. 1988).  This genus, of only five species, is mostly western Pacific in distribution, except for this species and L. schuetta found in eastern Indian Ocean, Western Australia.  Found in caves and under rocks together with Paratrachichthys fernandezianus.

 

OPHIDIIDAE

Cusk eels / Congrios, Brótulas

Ophidion metoecus Robins, 1991. Fig. 3.

Ophidion metoecus Robins 1991:5. Type locality: Robinson Crusoe Island, Juan Fernández Islands.

Uncommon  in collections. Though no live color information was available at the time of description, Robins (1991) was correct in his assumption that coloration was similar to O. exul, however the lateral line is not whitish as he suggested. Ophidion exul remains to be the larger species; the longest specimen of O. metoecus collected by us was 113 mm SL (FMNH 107460-107462).

 

ANTENNARIIDAE

Frogfishes / Pez Pescador

Antennarius sanguineus Gill, 1863.

Antennarius sanguineus Gill 1863:91. Type locality: Cape San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico.

Antennarius leopardinus Günther 1864:151. Type locality: Pacific coast of Panamá.

Antennarius tagus Heller & Snodgrass 1903:226. Type locality: Tagus Cove, Isabela I. [Albemarle I.], Galápagos Islands.

Antennarius coccineus (Lesson, 1831). Fig. 3.

Chironectes coccineus Lesson (ex Cuvier) 1831:143.Type locality: Mauritius.

Antennarius drombus Jordan & Evermann 1903:207. Type locality: Waikiki near Honolulu, Oahu I., Hawaiian Islands.

Antennarius nexilis Snyder 1904:537. Type locality: Honolulu, Oahu I., Hawaiian Islands.

Antennarius stigmaticus Ogilby 1912:63. Type locality: Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia.

Antennarius leucus Fowler 1934:512. Type locality: Durban, Natal, South Africa.

Abantennarius neocaledoniensis Le Danois 1964:126. Type locality: New Caledonia.

Antennarius moai Allen 1970:521. Large tide pool between Hanga Roa and Hanga Piko, Easter Island.

Antennarius immaculatus Le Danois 1970:91. Type locality: Eilat, Gulf of Aqaba.

Both species were collected at Desventuradas Islands (FMNH 109193-95) complementing a previous collection at San Félix by Anton Bruun cruises. As commented by Pietsch & Grobecker (1987:160), both these species are morphologically similar, occur sympatrically in the southeastern Pacific, and are easily distinguishable from each other only when specimens are over 25 mm SL. Antennarius sanguineus is distinguished in that it has darkly pigmented swellings of the esca and dark rounded spots on the belly, both features lacking in A. coccineus. When specimens are under 25 mm SL, only the difference in dorsal fin ray counts separates A. sanguineus (13 rays) from A. coccineus (12 rays).

 

GOBIESOCIDAE

Clingfishes / Pejesapos

Gobiesox marmoratus Jenyns, 1842.

Gobiesox marmoratus Jenyns 1842:140. Type locality: Off Lemuy Island, Chiloé Archipelago, Chile

Gobiesox nigricans Philippi in Delfin 1899:122. Type locality: Chonos Island, Chile.

Sicyases brevirostris (Guichenot, 1848). Fig. 3.

Gobiesox brevirostris Guichenot 1848:335. Type locality: Juan Fernández Islands.

Sicyases hildebrandi Schultz 1944:61. Type locality: Cumberland Bay, Juan Fernández Islands.

Both species occur at Robinson Crusoe and A. Selkirk Islands, but are apparently not syntopic as both were not collected at the same time and location. Vera & Pequeño (2001) compared the insular populations of Sicyases with those of continental Chile and supported the differentiation between insular and continental species. Vera & Pequeño (2001) followed De Buen (1960) in considering the insular species as S. hildebrandi rather than the earlier S. brevirostris. Sicyases brevirostris is considered by us as senior synonym of S. hildebrandi following Briggs’ (1955) conclusion based on examination of type material, rather than following De Buen’s doubt that Guichenot (1848) ever had specimens from the islands and his ascription of S. brevirostris as junior synonym of S. sanguineus. Briggs (1955) distinguished Sicyases brevirostris from S. sanguineus by a smaller head (>30% vs. <30% SL) and more anal fin rays (9 vs. 7-8). Vera & Pequeño’s (2001) study included an additional feature to distinguish both species: S. brevirostris with smooth skin and S. sanguineus with rugose skin except in the smallest specimens. Further research is needed, possibly at the molecular level, in order to determine whether these island populations are indeed distinct from their continental counterparts and if there has been any dispersal. Neither species is present at Desventuradas Islands.

 

ATHERINOPSIDAE

Silverside / Pejerrey

Odontesthes gracilis (Steindachner, 1898). Fig. 4.

Chirostoma gracile Steindachner 1898:314. Type locality: Cumberland Bay, Robinson Crusoe Island, Juan Fernández Islands.

Found in schools in caves and inlets very close to the surface or under the pier at Cumberland Bay (UMAR 126, 212, 223). Semi transparent when alive with greenish hues above the silvery lateral band. Presence of this species at Alejandro Selkirk Island was confirmed in Dyer (2000), but no specimens were collected at Desventuradas.

Figure 4. Species of the fish families Atherinopsidae, Monocentridae, Trachichthyidae, Syngnathidae, Scorpaenidae, Neosebastidae, and Triglidae. Underwater photo of S. englerti by A. Sepúlveda
Figura 4.
Especies de peces de las familias Atherinopsidae, Monocentridae, Trachichthyidae, Syngnathidae, Scorpaenidae, Neosebastidae y Triglidae. Foto submarina de S. englerti por A. Sepúlveda

 

 

EXOCOETIDAE

Flyingfishes / Pez Volador

Cheilopogon spilonotopterus (Bleeker, 1866).

Exocoetus spilonotopterus Bleeker 1866:113. Type locality: Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia.

Pectoral and pelvic fins extended to anal fin or beyond. Pectoral fin uniformly brown with transparent margin. Lower jaw equal or slightly prognathous. Black blotch on dorsal fin. Anal-fin origin behind vertical that passes by third dorsal-fin ray. Dorsal part of body black or dark blueish (FMNH 107472).

 

MONOCENTRIDAE

Pinecone fishes

Monocentris reedi Schultz, 1956. Fig. 4.

Monocentris reedi Schultz 1956:238. Type locality: Off Robinson Crusoe Island, Juan Fernández Islands.

This species is the sole representative of the family in the southeastern Pacific, with the other three congeneric species in Japan, Australia and New Zealand waters. This species was collected at Desventuradas Islands only, in intertidal pools, in caves at 10-30 m, and trawled at 50-100 m (FMNH 107283-107290), however also found at depths up to 250 m (Kotlyar 1985). All specimens encountered in museum collections are from Desventuradas or Nazca Ridge (Kotlyar 1985, 1996), except the type specimen (USNM 164227) said to have been from Juan Fernández. De Buen (1959a) described another specimen from Selkirk Island though no specimen is available and mentioned as extremely rare by fishermen there. Dorsal and pelvic spines robust with a locking mechanism similar to sticklebacks and some catfishes.

 

TRACHICHTHYIDAE

Roughies, Sandpaper fishes / Pez Soldado

Paratrachichthys fernandezianus (Günther, 1887) Fig. 4.

Trachichthys fernandezianus Günther 1887:23. Type locality: Juan Fernández Islands.

A very abundant species, aggregated in caves together with Lotella fernandeziana and less often with Monocentris reedi, and found in Desventuradas and Juan Fernández islands (FMNH 107291-107298).  Live color is coppery brown, turning to brown and gray in formaline. Single representative of the genus in the southeastern Pacific, with nine other congeners found worldwide.

 

CENTRISCIDAE

Bellowsfish / Pez picaflor

Notopogon fernandezianus (Delfin, 1899).

Centriscus fernandezianus, Delfin 1899:75. Type locality: Juan Fernández Islands.

Macrorhamphosus schoteli Weber 1909: 76,77. Type locality: Western Atlantic between Bahia and Montevideo, Uruguay.

Duhamel (1995) revised the genus and concluded this species is restricted to the southeastern Pacific (Juan Fernández to Nazca and Salas & Gómez ridges) and southwestern Atlantic (southern Brazil, Uruguay, and northern Argentina). Meléndez & Villalba (1992) described and photographed a specimen collected from Robinson Crusoe (MNHNC P6761). Specimens were also collected by R/V Anton Bruun (SIO65-648, 653, 656). Though no specimen has been reported from Desventuradas Islands it is presumed to be present there as well.

Longspine snipefish / Pez Picaflor

Macroramphosus scolopax (Linnaeus, 1758)

Balistes scolopax Linnaeus 1758: 329 Type Locality:  Mediterranean Sea.

Centriscus velitaris Pallas 1770 Type Locality: Ambon Island, Moluccas Islands, Indonesia.

Silurus cornutus Forsskal 1775. Type Locality: Marseille, France.

Macroramphosus gracilis (Lowe, 1839)

Centriscus gracilis, Lowe 1839: 86. Type Locality: Off Madeira.

Macroramphosus hawaiiensis Gilbert 1905. Type Locality: Near Laysan Island, Leeward Island, Hawaiian Islands, U.S.A., Albatross Sta. 3940, 59-70 fm.

Macroramphosus molleri Whitley 1930. Type Locality: Maroubra Beach near Sydney, NSW Australia.

Two specimens of Macroramphosus were collected at Robinson Crusoe Island at a depth of 20 m during a night dive (UMAR 252), however, specimens of both species have been trawled at greater depths of 140-155 m (SIO65-647,649,656) at Robinson Crusoe Island, at San Félix Island (De Buen 1963), and observed underwater at 260 m on the Nazca and Salas & Gómez submarine ranges (Golovan & Pakhorukov 1987). Both species seem to inhabit sympatrically all oceans of the world (Matthiessen et al. 2003).

 

SYNGNATHIDAE

Pipefishes / Pez Aguja

Cosmocampus arctus heraldi (Fritzche, 1980). Fig. 4.

Bryx (Simocampus) heraldi Fritzsche 1980:193. Type locality: San Félix Island.

A single male specimen was collected at San Ambrosio Island, with numerous larvae in pouch (FMNH 107299). Distinguished from other subspecies of C. arctus in having a dorsal-fin base longer than head length (Dawson 1985). Present in both island groups.

 

SCORPAENIDAE

Scorpionfishes / Cabrillas, Escorpénidos

Scorpaena fernandeziana Steindachner 1875.  Fig. 4.

Scorpaena fernandeziana Steindachner 1875:451. Type locality: Juan Fernández Islands.

The most common of rockfishes collected on all islands, is distinguished from other species in having mottled anal and caudal fins, 12 dorsal fin spines, 5 branched pectoral fin rays, cheek with ctenoid and cycloid scales, and lacrimal bone with 2-3 prominent spines pointed dorsomedially towards nasal spine. Suborbital sensory canal has skin-covered openings with multiple perforations rather than the single pore opening. Coloration and pigmentation pattern are very variable, from red to dark blood-red brown. Records of Scorpaena histrio, though listed by Sepúlveda (1987) and Pequeño & Sáez (2000), are most probably a mis-identification of this or the following species.

Scorpaena thomsoni Günther, 1880. Fig. 4.

Scorpaena thomsoni Günther 1880:24, pl. XII. Type locality: Juan Fernández Islands.

Scorpaena uncinata de Buen 1961:32. Type locality: San Ambrosio Island.

The largest of the rockfishes, with 12 dorsal fin spines, last dorsal ray attached by membrane to midline, 6-7 branched pectoral fin rays, no scales on cheek, and dorsomedial spines of lacrimal bone absent or greatly reduced to a nub.  The suborbital sensory canal is with normal single-pore openings, sometimes accompanied by two smaller perforations alongside the main pore. Large black blotch on posterior end of spinous dorsal fin is a distinguishing feature when present.  Found in Desventuradas and Juan Fernández Islands.

Scorpaenodes englerti Eschmeyer & Allen, 1971. Fig. 4.

Scorpaenodes englerti Eschmeyer & Allen 1971:525. Type locality: Tidepools between Hanga Roa & Hanga Piko, Easter Island.

Similar in size and collected with Scorpaena fernandeziana, but distinguished by lacking the mottled caudal and anal fins, with 13 dorsal fin spines, 8-9 branched pectoral fin rays, ctenoid scales only on cheek, suborbital with reduced spination, nasal spine reduced, lacrimal greatly overlapping maxilla with an undulatory ventral margin ending posteriorly with a blunt spine and large fleshy flap. First record of this species in the Desventuradas Islands (FMNH 109190-109192, MNHNC P7170, 7188, 7196).

 

NEOSEBASTIDAE

Scorpionfishes / Escorpénido de arena

Maxillicosta reticulata (De Buen, 1961). Fig. 4.

Cristula  reticulata De Buen 1961:27. Type locality: Robinson Crusoe Island, Juan Fernández Islands.

This species is found on sandy bottoms into which they dig backwards, sometimes with only the head in view. Ventral half of body unpigmented, dorsal half with a reticulated pigmentation pattern, dorsal fin mottled and caudal fin banded. Eye large, dorsally flattened with a fringed dorsal margin of pupil. Dorsal fin with 13 spines and 8 soft rays, cheek and body scales cycloid, varying number of spinoid scales behind head and dorsal to lateral line, interorbital space very narrow, numerous small suborbital and supraorbital spines of equal size, maxilla with 3-5 longitudinal ridges. This is the first record of this species for the Desventuradas Islands (FMNH 107372-107375).

 

TRIGLIDAE

Gurnards, Searobins / Pez Mariposa

Pterygotrigla picta (Günther, 1880). Fig. 4.

Trigla picta Günther 1880:24. Type locality: Juan Fernández Islands.

Trigla guttata Philippi 1896:375.  Type locality: Juan Fernández Islands.

Specimens found in Juan Fernández Islands, in Easter Island and Salas & Gómez Island. No specimens were found recorded from Desventuradas Islands as mentioned by Pequeño & Lamilla (2000). Also recorded in southern Australia, New Caledonia, and New Zealand (Kuiter 1993:113).  Found at depths of 60 m (Hubbs 1959) to 320 m (Golovan & Pakhorukov 1987). De Buen (1959b) provided a detailed description of a single specimen from Robinson Crusoe Island.

 

POLYPRIONIDAE

Sea Bass / Bacalao de Juan Fernández

Polyprion oxygeneios (Schneider & Forster in Bloch & Schneider, 1801).

Epinephelus oxygeneios Schneider & Forster in Bloch & Schneider 1801:301. Type locality: Queen Charlotte Island, New Zealand.

Polyprion knerii, Steindachner 1875:443. Type locality: St. Paul’s Island; Juan Fernández Islands.

Perca prognatha Forster in Bloch & Schneider 1801:301. Not available.

Polyprion yanezi De Buen 1959:85. Type locality: 1.5 mi. West of Montemar, Chile.

A deep water species present in seamounts around the Juan Fernández and Desventuradas Islands, as well as in southern Australia, New Zealand, and Tristan da Cunha. Severely overfished.

 

CALLANTHIIDAE

Callanthias platei  Steindachner, 1898. Fig. 5.

Callanthias platei Steindachner 1898:284. Type locality: Juan Fernández Islands.

Redish with purple hues on head, sometimes with filaments trailing from tips of caudal fin. A beautiful but not very abundant fish, found in both island groups. A species from the Nazca Ridge, Callanthias parini Anderson & Johnson (1984) is potentially found at Desventuradas Islands at depths over 300 m.

Figure 5. Species of the fish families Callanthiidae, Serranidae, Carangidae, Sciaenidae, Kyphosidae, and Chaetodontidae. Underwater photos of S. lalandi and G. albostriata by M. Duhart
Figura 5. Especies de peces de las familias Callanthiidae, Serranidae, Carangidae, Sciaenidae, Kyphosidae y Chaetodontidae. Fotos submarinas de S. lalandi y G. albostriata por M. Duhart

 

 

SERRANIDAE

Sea Basses / Serránidos

Caprodon longimanus Günther, 1859. Fig. 5.

Anthias longimanus Günther 1859:94. Type locality: Indian or Australian Seas

Scorpis fairchildi Hector 1875:241. Type locality: Bay of Plenty, New Zealand.

Neoanthias guntheri Castelnau 1879:367. Type locality: Port Jackson, NSW Australia.

Quite common in Juan Fernández and Desventuradas Islands, it is found usually in small schools of 5 to 10 individuals, though sometimes larger. It is easily recognizable by its long pectoral fin which reaches beyond the origin of the anal fin. It has a broad dark-red lateral stripe from caudal peduncle to mid-body, but which looses definition in the pectoral-postorbital region. Its abundant gillrakers and stomach contents characterize it as an opportunistic pelagic polyphagic-zooplanktivorous predator (Rojas et al. 1998a, c).

Cabrilla

Hypoplectrodes semicinctum (Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1833). Fig. 5.

Plectropoma semicinctum Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:442. Type locality: Juan Fernández Islands.

Scopularia rubra De Buen 1959:95. Type locality: Cumberland Bay, Robinson Crusoe Island, Juan Fernández Islands.

Possibly the most ubiquitious of all serranids on these islands. The juveniles with more of a fusiform body and striking horizontal vermiculations streaming from the snout area to the opercle, grow into taller bodied adults without clear head vermiculations. Found in both island groups and one specimen collected at Easter Island (Randall et al. 2005)

Plectranthias exsul Heemstra & Anderson, 1983.

Plectranthias exsul Heemstra & Anderson 1983:632. Type locality: Juan Fernández Islands.

Plectranthias lamillai Rojas & Pequeño, 1998b.

Plectranthias lamillai Rojas & Pequeño 1998b:48. Type locality: Rey de Bastos Sector, Alejandro Selkirk Island, 33°46’S, 80°46’W, Juan Fernández Islands.

Plectranthias exsul is distributed in Juan Fernández, Desventuradas Islands and Nazca Ridge (Heemstra & Anderson 1983, Rojas & Pequeño 1998c, Pequeño & Lamilla 2000). Plectranthias lamillai is endemic to Alejandro Selkirk Island; however its validity was questioned by Anderson & Baldwin (2000), based on their comparison of the single type specimen of P. lamillai with specimens of similar size and type material of P. exsul. The color pattern of P. lamillai is different to that of P. exsul as characterized by Anderson & Randall (1991), but Anderson & Baldwin (2000) considered it “best interpreted as variations on a common theme”.

 

CARANGIDAE

Jacks / Jurel de Juan Fernández

Pseudocaranx chilensis (Guichenot, 1848). Fig. 5.

Caranx chilensis Guichenot 1848:235. Type locality: Juan Fernández Islands.

This is the predominant pelagic species of the islands, attaining a large size (650 mm TL) as in Figure 5. The horse mackerel, Trachurus murphyi, is often found in Juan Fernández as an incidental catch. Records of Pseudocaranx dentex are considered a misidentification of this species.

Yellowtails / Vidriola, Palometa, Dorado

Seriola lalandi Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1833. Fig. 5.

Seriola lalandi Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:208. Type locality: Brazil.

Seriola aureovittata Temminck & Schlegel 1845:115. Type locality: Japan.

Seriola banisteri Smith 1959:256. Type locality: Off Hibberdene, Natal, South Africa.

Seriola (Buphthalmus) bovinoculata Smith 1959:259. Type locality: Pinda, Mozambique.

Halatractus dorsalis Gill 1863:84. Type locality: Cape San Lucas, Baja California, México.

Seriola foncki Delfin 1903:222. Type locality: Juan Fernández Islands.

Seriola grandis Castelnau 1872:115. Type locality: Melbourne market, Victoria, Australia.

Seriola mazatlana Steindachner 1876:56. Type locality: Mazatlán, Sinaloa, w. México.

Lichia pappei Bleeker (ex Castelnau) 1860:65. Type locality: Kalk Bay, South Africa.

This pelagic species is readily found around the shores of Juan Fernández Islands during the spring and summer months (Arana 2000) in schools of varying sizes. It is highly regarded by fishermen which draws an incipient alternative business to the islands.

 

SCIAENIDAE

Grunts / Corvina de Juan Fernández

Umbrina reedi Günther, 1880. Fig. 5.

Umbrina reedi Günther 1880:25. Type locality: Juan Fernández Islands.

Endemic to both island groups (Kong & Valdés 1990, Walker & Radford 1992). The scale row pigmentation pattern -horizontal below lateral line and transversal above lateral line- is less evident in larger specimens.

 

KYPHOSIDAE

Sea Chubs /Vieja negra, Jerguilla de Juan Fernández

Girella albostriata Steindachner, 1898. Fig. 5.

Girella albostriata Steindachner 1898:287. Type locality: Juan Fernández Islands.

Girella feliciana Clark 1938:180. Type locality: Tide pools, San Félix Island.

Endemic to both island groups. Large herbivorous fishes (Duhart & Ramírez 1998) with a juvenile phase in tide pools. We regard G. feliciana to represent the juvenile intertidal pool-resident of G. albostriata. The thin light vertical striations over a black-green body that characterize this species are variable in number and visibility, are more clearly visible underwater and fade quickly after being fished. The northern Pacific Girella nigricans was cited for Juan Fernández Islands by Pequeño & Sáez (2000), though not on a specimen-based identification.

Sweeps / Pampanito de Juan Fernández

Scorpis chilensis Guichenot, 1848. Fig. 5.

Scorpis chilensis Guichenot 1848:220. Type locality: Juan Fernández Islands.

Endemic to both island groups and very abundant. Single southeastern Pacific species with other four congeneric species inhabiting Australian and New Zealand waters.

 

CHAETODONTIDAE

Narrow-barred butterflyfish / Pez mariposa de Juan Fernández

Amphichaetodon melbae Burgess & Caldwell in Burgess, 1978. Fig. 5.

Chaetodon aureus Molina 1782:127.

Chaetodon chilensis Gmelin 1789:1264.

Chaetodon chilensis Molina 1810:193.

Amphichaetodon melbae Burgess & Caldwell in Burgess 1978:291. Type locality: San Félix Island.

Found in both island groups and Easter Island. The descriptions provided by Molina (1782, 1810) clearly refer to this species, but as the names aureus or chilensis have never before been associated with this species, we have opted to maintain the name melbae for the purpose of taxonomic stability until a proper taxonomic revision of the species has been undertaken.

 

CHIRONEMIDAE

Kelpfishes /Yunyungo, Cachudito.

Chironemus bicornis (Steindachner, 1898). Fig. 6.

Chilodactylus bicornis Steindachner 1898:291. Type locality: Juan Fernández Islands.

Present in both island groups. Relatively abundant, especially within the 5 m depth range. Found perched with pectoral fins on rocks at different angles where they eat mostly small invertebrates.

Kelpfishes / Cabrilla de Juan Fernández

Chironemus delfini (Porter, 1914). Fig. 6.

Chilodactylus delfini Porter 1914:204. Type locality: Juan Fernández Islands.

Present on Juan Fernández islands only (Meléndez & Dyer 2010). Less abundant than Ch. bicornis, fully sympatric, but not sister species (Burridge et al. 2006). Found under large boulders, slightly territorial and not aggresive.

Figura 6. Species of the fish families Chironemidae, Cheilodactylidae, and Labridae. Underwater photo of N. gayi by A. Sepúlveda
Figura 6.
Especies de peces de las familias Chironemidae, Cheilodactylidae y Labridae. Foto submarina de N. gayi por A. Sepúlveda

 

 

CHEILODACTYLIDAE

Morwongs / Breca

Nemadactylus gayi (Kner 1865). Fig. 6.

Cheilodactylus gayi Kner 1865:92. Type locality: Chile.

Present in both island groups. Previously placed in Acantholatris or Cheilodactylus, is now referred to Nemadactylus according to Burridge (1999a,b). Presence of this species in southern continental America is questionable (Burridge 1999b) and most probably is based on misidentifications of Nemadactylus bergi (Pequeño 2004).

 

LABRIDAE

Wrasses / Vieja de Juan Fernández

Pseudolabrus gayi (Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1839). Fig. 6.

Labrus gayi Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1839:97. Type locality: Juan Fernández Islands.

The species is present abundantly in both island groups (Russell 1988). It is distinguished from other wrasses by a shorter and deeper body. A horizontal line passing over the pectoral fin axilla divides a darker dorsal half from a lighter to silvery ventral area.

Wrasses / Vieja, Biya

Malapterus reticulatus Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1839. Fig. 6.

Malapterus reticulatus Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1839:355. Type locality: Juan Fernández Islands.

Neolabrus fenestratus Steindachner 1875:461. Type locality: Juan Fernández Islands.

The most abundant species together with Scartichthys and Pseudolabrus. With their characteristic pectoral-fin locomotor pattern, individuals peck-feed at small invertebrates and flock around ready to get whatever is kicked up by the diver. This species has two adult color patterns, the green-yellow phase and the black phase (Fig. 6). Juveniles display a black blotch on the anterior half of the soft dorsal fin (Fig. 6) which later disappears, leaving only the anterior blotch over the first three dorsal fin spines. They are also known to be cleaners of Scorpis individuals, feeding off buccal isopod ectoparasites.

Suezichthys sp. Russell & Westneat (in prep.) Fig. 6.

Type locality: Robinson Crusoe Island, SE of Bacalao Point (33°38’20”S; 78°47’15”W).

Present on both island groups and a range extension for the genus. It is distiguished from its family relatives on the islands by a large blotch extended over four or five dorsal fin rays, over the abdominal region and seven or eight saddled bands over the dorsal half of the body.

 

POMACENTRIDAE

Damselfishes / Castañeta

Chromis meridiana  Greenfield & Woods, 1980. Fig. 7.

Chromis meridiana Greenfield & Woods 1980:634. Type locality: San Félix Island.

The only damselfish species around the Desventuradas Islands, distinguished by a white patch saddled immediately posterior to the soft dorsal fin, 17 tubed scales on upper lateral line, 14 dorsal spines, and two dorsal and two ventral procurrent caudal fin spines.  Chromis crusma has been recorded in Juan Fernández by numerous authors (De Buen 1959a, Pequeño & Sáez 2000) but these seem to be errors as none have been collected (Pequeño et al. 2005).

Figure 7. Species of the fish families Pomacentridae, Pinguipedidae, Gobiidae, Blenniidae, Soleidae, and Paralichthyidae. Underwater photos of S. variolatus and P. fernandezianus by A. Sepúlveda and M. Rossi
Figura 7. Especies de peces de las familias Pomacentridae, Pinguipedidae, Gobiidae, Blenniidae, Soleidae y Paralichthyidae. Fotos submarinas de S. variolatus y P. fernandezianus por A. Sepúlveda y M. Rossi

 

 

PINGUIPEDIDAE

Grubfishes / Rollizo de Juan Fernández

Parapercis dockinsi McCosker, 1971. Fig. 7.

Parapercis dockinsi McCosker 1971:682. Type locality: 1 km northwest of San Carlos Point, Juan Fernández Islands, off Chile,

Present usually on whitish sandy bottoms where it is easily camouflaged. Endemic to the Juan Fernández Islands.

 

BLENNIIDAE

Blennies / Cachudito o Torito de Juan Fernández

Scartichthys variolatus (Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1836) Fig. 7.

Salarias variolatus Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1836:346. Type locality: Juan Fernández Islands.

Salarias rubropunctatus Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1836:348. Type locality: Juan Fernández Islands.

Ophioblennius fernandezensis Clark 1938:184. Type locality: San Juan Bautista (Cumberland) Bay, Juan Fernández Islands.

Salarias cuvieri Günther 1861:248. Type locality: Chile.

The most abundant species on the rocky shores of both island groups, wherever there are algae. It displays a diverse range of color patterns according to age and location, but all with the characteristic red spots over the head and body, and the black blotch between the first two rays of the dorsal fin. Premetamorphic individuals collected at intertidal pools in Robinson Crusoe Island are semi-transparent and display canine-like teeth. Adult males with the first three rays of the anal fin enlarged and swollen. Scartichthys viridis has been reported in Robinson Crusoe based on a single specimen (MNHNC P6753, Meléndez & Villalba 1992) and considered incidental.

Entomacrodus chapmani Springer, 1967.

Entomacrodus chapmani Springer 1967:95. Type locality: Easter Island, SE Pacific.

Though not collected in this expedition, a specimen was collected at San Félix (IZUA 1478, Pequeño & Lamilla 2000, Pequeño & Sáez 2004).

 

GOBIIDAE

Gobies / Pez neón

Paratrimma nigrimenta Hoese & Brothers, 1976. Fig. 7.

Paratrimma nigrimenta Hoese & Brothers 1976:496. Type locality: 1 km northwest of San Carlos, Juan Fernández Islands.

Paratrimma urospila Hoese & Brothers, 1976.

Paratrimma urospila Hoese & Brothers 1976:497. Type locality:  NW side of San Félix Island.

Only P. nigrimenta was collected at Robinson Crusoe and Alejandro Selkirk Islands, in or at the mouth of small caves and crevices, down to 30 m. Bright yellow body with purple snout and forehead, tapering posteriorly to the base of the first dorsal fin, which has an extended first ray in males.

 

PARALICHTHYIDAE

Flatfishes/ Lenguados

Paralichthys fernandezianus Steindachner, 1903. Fig. 7.

Paralichthys fernandezianus Steindachner 1903:208. Type locality: Juan Fernández Islands.

Paralichthys hilgendorfii Steindachner 1903:209. Type locality: Juan Fernández Islands.

Paralichthys schmitti Ginsburg 1933:1. Type locality: Juan Fernández Islands.

Snout naked. Blind side with preopercle, mandible and maxilla naked. Eyed side with ctenoid scales whereas blind side with scales cycloid. Interorbital space one third to half the vertical eye diameter. Presence of blotches on the blind side of dorsal and anal fins, and pigment between the lower mandible and the pelvic fin of the blind side. Mandibles with sharp canine-like teeth. Present in Juan Fernández and Desventuradas Islands groups.

Arnoglossus coeruleosticta (Steindachner, 1898). Fig. 7.

Paralichthys coeruleosticta Steindachner 1898:327. Type locality: Juan Fernández Islands.

Snout with scales. Preopercle, mandible and maxilla of blind side with scales. Interorbital space narrow, less than one third the vertical eye diameter. Mandibles with a single row of fine teeth. Present in Juan Fernández and Desventuradas Islands groups.

 

SOLEIDAE

Soles / Lenguado

Aseraggodes bahamondei Randall & Meléndez, 1987. Fig. 7.

Aseraggodes bahamondei Randall & Meléndez 1987:99. Type locality: Off Mataveri O Tai near S end of W coast, Easter Island.

This species was collected with bottom trawl off San Félix, extending its geographic distribution across the Pacific from Lord Howe and Norfolk to Desventuradas Islands.

 

Biogeography

Pequeño & Lamilla (1996a, 2000) supported Parin’s (1991) proposal of extending the Indo-West Pacific zoogeographic region across to the southeastern Pacific to include not only the Nazca Ridge but also the Desventuradas Islands. Pequeño & Sáez (2000) took this one step further and extended it to the Juan Fernández Islands.  Pequeño & Lamilla (2000) reviewed the zoogeographical affinities between Desventuradas and the western Pacific islands (Easter Island to Australia), increasing the number of shared species from eight to fifteen (Table 3). This paper supplies an additional five species to their list: Gymnothorax cf. obesus, Gonorynchus greyi, Antennarius sanguineus, Scorpaenodes englerti, and Aseraggodes bahamondei

The number of species shared between two regions (bioaccountancy of Greenwood 1983) is a measure of recent or present-day connectivity between the regions, however, says nothing of the past relations (historical biogeography), an issue overlooked by previous biogeographical studies of these island groups (Pequeño & Lamilla 1996a, 2000, Pequeño & Sáez 2000). Three phylogenetic studies exist to date at the intrageneric level that include fishes from these islands: Pseudolabrus (Russell 1988), Nemadactylus (Burridge 1999b), and Chironemus (Burridge et al. 2006). All these studies indicate a West Pacific origin of the genera, with one or multiple dispersal events towards the East.

In the absence of a phylogenetic study, however, the hypothesis of a shared historical relationship inherently contained in the congeneric membership of two or more species, provides a measure of historical relationships between the areas inhabited by the species involved, especially when the genus is clearly monophyletic, derived and relatively restricted geographically. Genera that seem to support the above pattern of historical relationships are: Lotella, Paratrachichthys, Monocentris, Scorpis, Amphichaetodon, Maxillicosta, and Suezichthys. Knowledge of the species relationships within these genera would provide the required support for a more general statement of the historical biogeography of the fishes of the southern Pacific Ocean.

Though some species are shared with the continent (see Table 3), some species also show a historical relationship with the continent, either by phylogenetic analysis (Odontesthes gracilis Dyer 1998, 2000, Dyer & Gosztonyi 1999) or by having their closest relatives only on continental America as is the case with Scartichthys variolatus, Ophidion metoecus, and Sicyases brevirostris.

The Desventuradas and Juan Fernández Islands also share a fish fauna that is endemic to these islands as a geographic unit. Pequeño & Lamilla (2000:433) reported 21 species endemic to these two island groups, whereas Pequeño & Sáez (2000:30) indicated that 15 species were shared between them. This work reports a total 22 species endemic to both island groups as a geographic unit (Scolecenchelys chilensis, Lotella fernandeziana, Ophidium metoecus, Paratrachichthys fernandezianus, Cosmocampus arctus heraldi, Scorpaena fernandeziana, Scorpaena thomsoni, Maxillicosta reticulata, Callanthias platei, Hypoplectrodes semicinctum, Plectranthias exsul, Pseudocaranx chilensis, Umbrina reedi, Girella albostriata, Scorpis chilensis, Chironemus bicornis, Nemadactylus gayi, Pseudolabrus gayi, Malapterus reticulatus, Suezichthys sp., Scartichthys variolatus, Paralichthys fernandezianus, Arnoglossus coeruleosticta). Thus the Juan Fernández and Desventuradas Islands together exhibit a 42,3% endemicity of coastal fishes (over 68% when considering only species common to both island groups, 32 see Table 3) and as such we propose they be considered as a biogeographic unit.

 

DISCUSSION

The Juan Fernández and Desventuradas Islands have a total of 52 species of coastal fishes, with 41 and 43 species in each, respectively. The number of endemic species for Juan Fernández is down from 13 (25.5%; Pequeño & Sáez 2000) to 5 (12.2%; Sicyases brevirostris, Odontesthes gracilis, Chironemus delfini, Parapercis dockinsi, and Paratrimma nigrimenta), however three species are presented as new records for these islands (Gymnothorax cf. obesus, Gnathophis sp. and Suezichthys sp). The Desventuradas Islands has only 2 endemic species (4.6%; Chromis meridiana and Paratrimma urospila) but 4 species are new records (Scorpaenodes englerti, Maxillicosta reticulata, Suezichthys sp., and Aseraggodes bahamondei).

The eastern extension of the Indo West Pacific Region to include the Nazca Ridge, Desventuradas and Juan Fernández Islands (Parin 1991, Pequeño & Lamilla 1996a, 2000, Pequeño & Sáez 2000) is supported in this paper.  The zoogeographical affinities between Desventuradas and western Pacific islands (Easter Island to Australia), includes 16 species, adding 4 new species to previous lists (Gymnothorax cf. obesus, Gonorynchus greyi, Scorpaenodes englerti, Aseraggodes bahamondei). Three phylogenetic studies (Pseudolabrus, Nemadactylus, and Chironemus) indicate a Western Pacific origin with one or more dispersal events to the Desventuradas and Juan Fernández Islands, and only one (Odontesthes) indicates a continental origin with a westward dispersal. The pattern of historical relationships of the Desventuradas and Juan Fernández Islands with the Western Pacific is supported with another 7 genera with relatively few species and restricted to the southern Pacific region. Furthermore, the Juan Fernández and Desventuradas Islands share 22 coastal fish species that are endemic to those island groups alone (42,3%), suggesting these two island groups should be considered as a single biogeographic unit.

 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We wish to thank the National Geographic Foundation grant 5257-96 that made this cruise possible, to Siegfried Ziller that turned the logistic nightmare into a successful 23-day cruise, a record for the aging M/V “Carlos Porter” made available to us by the Instituto Fomento Pesquero (IFOP).  We also wish to thank Marcel Duhart and Daniel Elton for their important contribution in diving and trawling collections. We especially thank Marcel Duhart and Álvaro Sepúlveda2 for allowing us to use their splendid underwater photographs. This work was also supported by NSF grant DEB-0844745 and funding from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation for the Encyclopedia of Life.

I (BSD) wish to thank the Field Museum’s Robert O. Bass Visiting Scientist Fund for a month’s visit in Chicago in 2000. We wish to thank the following for loans of specimens to FMNH: Karsten Hartel (MCZ), John Friel (CU), and H.J. Walker (SIO). Additional material (fishes, photos, tissues) was made available thanks to FONDECYT grant N° 1990172 to R. Meléndez & B.S. Dyer, and the incredible support received by Marcelo Rossi and “Peter” Niada from ENDEMICA Expeditions on Robinson Crusoe and Alejandro Selkirk Islands.

 

NOTE

1http://research.calacademy.org/ichthyology/catalog/fishcatmain.asp

 

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Recibido el 17 de noviembre de 2009 y aceptado el 16 de marzo de 2010

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