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Idesia (Arica)

versión On-line ISSN 0718-3429

Idesia vol.33 no.1 Arica feb. 2015

http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-34292015000100015 

Volumen 33, N° 1. Páginas 143-145 IDESIA (Chile) Diciembre 2014 / Enero-Febrero, 2015

NOTAS CIENTÍFICAS

New records of whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

 

Nuevos registros de moscas blancas (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) en Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

 

Alberto Luiz Marsaro Júnior1*, Francisco Racca Filho2, Adalton Raga3, Valmir Antonio Costa3

1* Embrapa Trigo, Rodovia BR 285, km 294, Caixa postal 451, Passo Fundo/ RS, Brazil.* Corresponding author: alberto.marsaro@embrapa.br
2 Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia, Departamento de Entomologia e Fitopatologia, Rodovia BR 465, km 7, Seropédica/RJ, Brazil.
3 Instituto Biológico, Centro Experimental, Rodovia Heitor Penteado km 3, Caixa Postal 70, Campinas/SP, Brazil.


ABSTRACT

This study reports seven species of whiteflies in the genera Aleurothrixus, Dialeurodicus, and Trialeurodes, as well as parasitism of Aleurothrixus floccosus by Signiphora sp. and Cales noacki. Three new hosts of Aleurothrixus aepim are reported. Dialeurodicus cockerellii and Trialeurodes vaporariorum are reported for the first time in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

Key words: Aleurothrixus spp., Dialeurodicus cockerellii, Trialeurodes vaporariorum, parasitoids, host plants.


RESUMEN

En este trabajo se registran siete especies de moscas blancas, incluyendo los géneros Aleurothrixus, Dialeurodicus y Trialeurodes, y el parasitismo de Aleurothrixus floccosus por Signiphora sp. y Cales noacki. Tres nuevos huéspedes son reportados a Aleurothrixus aepim. Dialeurodicus cockerellii y Trialeurodes vaporariorum se registran por primera vez en Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.

Palabras clave: Aleurothrixus spp., Dialeurodicus cockerellii, Trialeurodes vaporariorum,parasitoides,plantas hospederas.


Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) constitute a major problem for farmers around the world (Begum et al., 2011); they are a small group of phloem-sucking insects that absorb amino acids (Byrne & Bellows, 1991) and secrete honeydew (Inbar & Gerling, 2008). Consisting of approximately 1,556 described species in 161 genera (Martin & Mound, 2007) , most species of Aleyrodidae live in equatorial, tropical and subtropical regions (Inbar & Gerling, 2008) . The biological aspects of Aleyrodidae are relatively little known, considering the total number of described species (Byrne & Bellows, 1991). To contribute to the existing knowledge on Aleyrodidae bioecology in Brazil, the purpose of this study was to report new host plants of aleyrodid species in the extreme south of the country.

From February 2011 to November 2012, leaves infested by individuals of Aleyrodidae were collected from plants of seven botanical families in the municipality of Passo Fundo, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (28°15'S, 52°24'W). Seven species of whiteflies were recorded (Table 1). This study reports three new host plants for Aleurothrixus aepim (Goeldi): Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Allophylus edulis (St. Hil.) Radl. and Solanum americanum Mill, in the families Anacardiaceae, Sapindaceae, and Solanaceae, respectively. A. aepim, which has already been reported in Rio Grande do Sul State (Silva et al., 1968) and is widespread in Brazil, causes curling, drying and fall of cassava leaves (Manihot esculenta Crantz), compromising root yield and flour quality (Farias et al., 2007).

Table 1. Species of Aleyrodidae and respective host plants in the municipality of Passo Fundo, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, collected between February 2011 and November 2012.

Aleurothrixusfloccosus (Maskell) is one of the most geographically widespread citrus-infesting whiteflies in Brazil (Raga et al., 2011), causing the most extensive damage to organic crops (Rodrigues et al., 2009) and crops with inadequate management. In this study, the parasitoids Signiphora sp. (Hymenoptera: Signiphoridae) and Cales noacki Howard (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) emerged from nymphs of A. floccosus. An undetermined species of Signiphora has already been reported in Rio de Janeiro State in association with citrus plants infested by the same aleyrodid (Rodrigues & Cassino, 2003). Cales noacki, a species described from specimens collected in the city of Campinas, state of São Paulo (Howard, 1907), has been reported in many countries, mainly with Aleyrodidae hosts, including A. floccosus (Noyes, 2013). The genus Cales is currently considered incertae sedis within the Chalcidoidea (Mottern et al., 2011), and was excluded from Aphelinidae by Hayat (1998). Three new undescribed species, designated as Aleurothrixus sp1., Aleurothrixus sp2. and Aleurothrixus sp3. were observed on Jacaranda mimosifolia D. Don, Duranta erecta L., and Brunfelsia uniflora (Pohl) D. Don, respectively.

As part of this study, Dialeurodicus cockerellii (Quaintance) was recorded for the first time in Rio Grande do Sul State, on Psidium cattleianum Sabine. D. cockerellii has already been reported in the states of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Minas Gerais on P. cattleianum and other species of Myrtaceae (Silva et al., 1968).

This is also the first report of infestation by Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) in Rio Grande do Sul, on rue plants (Ruta graveolens L.). This whitefly is considered a polyphagous insect, cosmopolitan and pest of protected crops, but large populations of T. vaporariorum have also been observed under field conditions on tomato, broccoli, squash, eggplant, bean, cotton and ornamental plants in the state of São Paulo (Lourenção et al., 2008).

Additional studies are needed to expand the existing knowledge on whitefly species diversity, biological cycles, a complete list of host plants, natural enemies, and impact on plant species of commercial interest in Brazil.

Literature Cited

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Inbar, M.; Gerling, D. 2008. Plant-mediated interactions between whiteflies, herbivores, and natural enemies. Annual Review of Entomology, 53: 431-448.         [ Links ]

Lourenção, A.L.; Alves, A.C.; Fugi, C.G.Q.; Matos, E.S. 2008. Outbreaks of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (West.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) under field conditions in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Neotropical Entomology, 37: 89-91.         [ Links ]

Martin, J.H.; Mound, L.A. 2007. An annotated check list of the world's whiteflies (Insecta: Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Zootaxa, 1492: 1-84.         [ Links ]

Mottern, J.L., Heraty, J.M., Hartop, E. 2011. Cales (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea): morphology of an enigmatic taxon with a review of species. Systematic Entomology, 36: 267-284.         [ Links ]

Noyes, J.S. 2013. Universal Chalcidoidea Database. Available at: <http:// www.nhm.ac.uk/research-curation/projects/chalcidoids/> Viewed on: 29 Jan 2014        [ Links ]

Raga, A.; Marsaro Júnior, A.L.; Racca Filho, F.; Costa, V.A. 2011. Novos registros de Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera) no Estado de Roraima, Brasil. Arquivos do Instituto Biológico, 78 (3): 439-441.         [ Links ]

Rodrigues, W.C.; Cassino, P.C.R. 2003. Parasitismo de Aleurothrixus floccosus (Homoptera, Aleyrodidae) por Encarsia sp. (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae) e Signiphora sp. (Hymenoptera, Signiphoridae) em tangerina (Citrus reticulata) cv. Poncã. Revista da Universidade Rural, Série Ciências da Vida, 23 (1): 31-37.         [ Links ]

Rodrigues, W.C.; Cassino, P.C.R.; Spolidoro, M.V.; Silva-Filho, R. 2009. Insetos sugadores (Sternorrhyncha) em cultivo orgânico de tangerina cv. Poncã (Citrus reticulata Blanco): diversidade, constância, frequência e flutuação populacional. EntomoBrasilis, 2 (2): 42-48.         [ Links ]

Silva, A.G.A.; Gonçalves, C.R.; Galvão, D.M.; Gonçalves, A.J.L.; Gomes, J.; Silva, M.N.; Simoni, L. 1968. Quarto catálogo dos insetos que vivem nas plantas do Brasil, seus parasitos e predadores. Ministério da Agricultura, Rio de Janeiro, Parte II, Tomo 1, 622 p.         [ Links ]


Fecha de Recepción: 3 Octubre, 2014. Fecha de Aceptación: 9 Diciembre, 2014.

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