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Estudios de economía

versión On-line ISSN 0718-5286

Estudios de Economía vol.46 no.1 Santiago jun. 2019

http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-52862019000100125 

Articles

Culture is a luxury in Latin America

La cultura es un lujo en América Latina

Santiago Acerenza1 

Néstor Gandelman2 

1Iowa State University, United States of America

2Universidad ORT, Uruguay

Abstract:

In this paper we use micro-data from income and expenditure surveys for seven Latin American countries. We estimate Engel equations and present stylized facts regarding cultural spending. Culture activities are a key indicator of a society development and therefore cultural spending decisions are illustrative of how individuals behave and interact within society. We find that culture behaves as a luxury good with income (expenditure) elasticities of cultural spending around 2. Further, we estimate elasticities for three components of cultural spending: spending in cinemas, theaters, music and dancing performances, spending in sports events and spending in other cultural activities. These expenditure elasticities are remarkably similar, also near 2. Additionally, we find that cultural spending is larger in urban areas, larger for households where the household head is a female and larger in household with more members but lower per child as the number of children increases. We find that cultural spending is positively correlated with the education level of the household head and that older household heads allocate a lower share of the budget to culture.

Keywords: Culture; income and expenditure surveys; Engel equations; elasticity; Latin America; JEL Classification: D12, D13, Z11

Resumen:

En este trabajo utilizamos microdatos de encuestas de ingresos y gastos para siete países de América Latina. Estimamos ecuaciones de Engel y presentamos los hechos estilizados respecto del gasto cultural. Las actividades culturales son un indicador clave del desarrollo de la sociedad y, por tanto, las decisiones de gasto cultural son ilustrativas de cómo los individuos se comportan e interactúan dentro de ella. Encontramos que la cultura se comporta como un bien de lujo con elasticidades de ingreso (gasto) en el entorno de 2. Estimamos elasticidades para tres componentes del gasto cultural: gasto en cines, teatros, espectáculos de música y baile, gasto en eventos deportivos y gasto en otras actividades culturales. Estas elasticidades son notablemente similares entre sí, también cerca de 2. Adicionalmente, encontramos que el gasto cultural es mayor en áreas urbanas, mayor para hogares con jefe del hogar femenino y mayor en hogares más numerosos, aunque el gasto por niño es menor en los hogares con más hijos. Encontramos que el gasto cultural está correlacionado positivamente con el nivel de educación del jefe de hogar y que los jefes de familia de mayor edad asignan una menor proporción de su presupuesto a la cultura.

Palabras clave: Cultura; encuestas de ingresos y gastos; Ecuaciones de Engel; elasticidad; América Latina; Clasificación JEL: D12, D13, Z11

Full text available only in PDF format.

Texto completo disponible sólo en PDF.

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Recibido: 0 de Septiembre de 2017; Aprobado: 0 de Septiembre de 2018

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