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Latin american journal of aquatic research

versión On-line ISSN 0718-560X

Lat. Am. J. Aquat. Res. v.36 n.2 Valparaíso  2008

 

 

Lat. Am. J. Aquat. Res., 36(2): 183-222, 2008
DOI: 10.3856/vol36-issue 2-fulltext-4

RESEARCH ARTICLE

 

Estuarine and marine brachyuran crabs (Crustácea: Decapoda) from Bahía, Brazil: checklist and zoogeographical considerations

Cangrejos braquiuros estuarinos y marinos (Crustácea: Decapoda) de Bahia, Brasil: lista de especies y consideraciones zoogeográficas

 

Alexandre O. de Almeida*1,2 & Petrônio A. Coelho2

1Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas Rodovia Ilhéus-Itabuna, km 16, 45662-000 Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil. *(aalmeida@uesc.br)
2Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Departamento de Oceanografía, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Oceanografía, Av. Arquitetura, s/n, Cidade Universitaria, 50.670-901 Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil


ABSTRACT. The coast of the state of Bahia in eastern Brazil comprises more than 12% of tire entire Brazilian coast. However, the crustacean fauna of this area still remains poorly known, especially the shallow-water fauna. We provide here a list of 162 brachyuran crustaceans known for the Bahia coast, based on published records as well as material deposited in the Carcinological Collection of the Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, Bahia. The list includes estuarine and marine species (from coastal beaches to the continental shelf and slope) that have been reported at least once in the study area. Regarding longitudinal distribution patterns, five species are circum-tropical, nine are amphi-Atlantic, and two are amphi-American. The portunid Charybdis hellerii (A. Milne-Edwards, 1867) is an introduced Indo-West Pacific species. The remaining 145 species are native to the western Atlantic; 17 of these are endemic to Brazil. A total of 46 species (28.4%) have the southernmost limit of their known ranges in the western Atlantic between Bahia and the state of Rio de Janeiro, which suggests, for this group, the existence of a wide transition area between the Brazilian and Paulista zoogeographic provinces. Finally, two small range extensions in the western Atlantic are reported: the hymenosomatid Elamena gordonae Monod, 1956 from Camamu Bay (13°54'14"S) to Nova Vicosa (17°53'00.9"S), and the sesarmid Sesarma curaçãoense De Man, 1892 from Ilhéus (15°04'58.6"S) to Mucuri (18°05'38'S).

Keywords: diversity, zoogeographical provinces, marine crustaceans, estuarine crustaceans, eastern Brazilian coast.

RESUMEN. La costa del Estado de Bahia, situado en el este de Brasil, comprende más del 12% de la costa brasileña. Sin embargo, la fauna de crustáceos de esta area aún se encuentra pobremente conocida, sobretodo aquella de aguas someras. Se presenta una lista de 162 especies de crustáceos braquiuros conocidos de esta costa, en base a registros publicados y al material depositado en la Colección Carcinológica de la Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, Bahia. La lista incluye especies estuarinas y marinas (desde playas costeras hasta la plataforma continental y talud) que han sido reportadas por lo menos una vez para el area de estudio. En cuanto a los patrones de distribución longitudinal, cinco especies son circumtropicales, nueve anfi-Atlánticas, dos anfi-Americanas, y el portúnido Charybdis hellerii (A. Milne-Edwards, 1867) es una especie introducida, nativa del Indo-Pacífico oriental. Las restantes 145 especies son nativas del Atlántico occidental, 17 de las cuales son endémicas de Brasil. Un total de 46 especies (28.4%) tienen su límite sur de distribución en el Atlántico occidental, entre Bahia y el Estado de Rio de Janeiro, lo que sugiere, para el grupo estudiado, la existencia de una amplia zona de transición entre las provincias zoogeográficas Brasileña y Paulista. Finalmente, se reporta dos ampliaciones de ámbito en el Atlántico occidental: el himenosomátido Elamena gordonae Monod, 1956 desde Bahia de Camamu (13°54'14"S) a Nova Vicosa (17°53'00.9"S), y el sesármido Sesarma curaçãoense De Man, 1892 desde Ilhéus (15°04'58.6"S) a Mucuri (18°05'38'S).

Palabras clave: diversidad, provincias zoogeográficas, crustáceos marinos, crustáceos estuarinos, costa este de Brasil.


INTRODUCTION

Checklists of marine and estuarine species for a certain región serve as a point of departure for bio-geographical studies, research on biodiversity, environmental monitoring activities, defining the extent of protected areas, and developing preservation and sustainable exploitation strategies (Hendrickx, 1995). Lists should be accurate and attempt to eliminate doubtful records; when possible, they should be based on material deposited in zoological collections.

Crustaceans are important members of tropical benthic communities. In addition to the value of the larger and more abundant species for human consumption, a tremendous variety of small species contribute to the complexity and functioning of tropical ecosystems (Hendrickx, 1995). Among decapod crustaceans, the infraorder Brachyura is prominent because of its great diversity, comprising about 700 genera and 5000 species worldwide (Melo, 1996).

Extending over about 1,188 km, Bahia's coast-line is the longest of all the Brazilian states', consti-tuting more than 12% of the Brazilian coast (Coelho & Santos, 1995). The benthic fauna between Todos os Santos Bay and the city of Vitoria in the state of Espirito Santo is the least known in terms of composition on the Brazilian coast; the estuaries and coastal beaches in this part are especially poorly known (Lana et al, 1996). As a consequence, this area constitutes a gap in the known distributions of many decapod crustaceans (Almeida et al, 2007b). The Bahia coast includes several regions of high biological importance, such as Todos os Santos Bay, the Ilheus coast, and the Abrolhos Archipelago, all important for conserving the benthos of the continental shelf. In a recent review of the biodiversity in Brazilian coastal and marine zones (Ministerio do Meio Ambiente, 2002), Camamu Bay was categorized as a maximum-priority area for estuary and mangrove conservation.

The study area includes widely diverse coastal environments, which supposedly support high species richness. The objective of the present contribution was to review the literatee concerning marine and estuarine Brachyura in the state of Bahia, aiming to organize a checklist of species that have been reported at least once for this coast, and to summarize the present state of knowledge on this important crustacean group. This list is expected to be useful for future systematical and ecological studies. More-over, the zoogeography of the species treated herein is also included, thereby providing the grounds for a discussion on the existence of a boundary area between the Brazilian and Paulista zoogeographical provinces on the eastern Brazilian coast (Dana, 1853; Ekman, 1953; Balech, 1954; Vannucci, 1964; Briggs, 1974; Coelho & Ramos, 1972; Coelho et al, 1978; Coelho & Santos, 1980; Palacio, 1982; Boschi, 2000a, 2000b).

Historical account

Studies concerning the Brachyura fauna in Bahia began in the second half of the 19th century. In this period, a series of brachyuran species were collected during the expeditions to the coastal areas of the state of geologist Charles Frederick Hartt and other shipboard expeditions of great historical importance. These pioneer surveys occurred mainly in Salvador and adjacent areas, Todos os Santos Bay, the continental shelf off Salvador, and especially in the Abrolhos Archipelago to the south. As a result of these samples, several new crab species were described. Certain stations sampled at that time remained the southernmost known sites for some species in the western Atlantic for several decades.

The expeditions of C.F. Hartt made an important contribution to knowledge of the crustacean fauna in Bahia (as well as Brazil). During the Thayer Expedition (1865-1866), Hartt and partner Edward Cope-land sampled sites in southern Bahia such as Porto Seguro, Canavieiras, and off Abrolhos. The Brachyura collected by him in 1867, mainly at Abrolhos and Caravelas, were studied by Smith (1869) in the first publication to treat a large number of species. Between 1875 and 1877, the geologist Richard Rathbun took samples, especially in Salvador and Todos os Santos Bay, during the ComisSão Geológica do Imperio do Brasil, also led by Hartt. The innumerable specimens collected on this cam-paign were described in the publications of Mary Jane Rathbun, between 1892 and 1937, particularly her four monographic works (Rathbun, 1918, 1925, 1930, 1937).

Significant contributions to knowledge of the Brachyura fauna in Bahia were provided by samples from expeditions such as those of the Hassler, H.M.S. Challenger, and U.S.F.C.S. Albatross. A. Milne-Edwards (1873, 1878, 1879, 1880a, 1881), although studying mainly crustaceans from México, included several brachyurans in his publications that had been collected during the Hassler Expedition when it visited northeast Brazil in 1872. Material obtained by the Hassler was also examined by A. Milne-Edwards & Bouvier (1923). Miers (1886) published a list of 23 Brachyura species sampled by the H.M.S. Challenger far off Salvador and landed in September 1873. Based on this material, six spe-cies new to science were described. Species col-lected at the stations "Abrolhos" and "Bahia" (= Salvador) by the steamer Albatross in 1887 were studied by Rathbun (1898).

In the first half of the 20th century, efforts by Carlos Moreira and Ernst Garbe deserve special mention. Moreira (1901), in his publication "Crustáceos do Brazil", mentioned a total of 40 marine and/or estuarine species of Brachyura for Bahia, including previous records in the literatee and material deposited in the Museu Nacional (Rio de Janeiro) collection. In 1919, Garbe - at that time, the official collector for the Museu de Zoologia of the Universidade de São Paulo - sampled estuarine crabs in Ilhéus, originating material that was cited, for example, in publications by Williams (1974) and Bento et al. (2007). After several decades without new additions to the fauna of Brachyura in the state, Rodrigues da Costa (1968) published the list of species obtained by the French Calypso Expedition in 1962; the great majority of these species had been collected in the Abrolhos area. Subsequently, Joly et al. (1969) and Gomes Corrêa (1972) compiled the existing information on the composition of decapod fauna from the Abrolhos Archipelago, adding to the list the material collected by expeditions carried out by staff members of the Museu Nacional of Rio de Janeiro.

Coelho (1971) and Coelho & Ramos (1972) listed several species for Bahia based on coastal samplings done on board the R/V Almirante Saldanha along the state's coast during the 1960s. In the 1980s, contributions from Gouvêa & Leite (1980) and Gouvêa (1986a, 1986b) dealt with the fauna at innumerable sites around Todos os Santos Bay. Carqueija & Gouvêa (1996) documented, also in this bay, the occurrence of the non-indigenous swimming-crab Charybdis hellerü (A. Milne-Edwards, 1937), anative of the Indo-Pacific.

Beginning in 1995, the fauna of Bahia was prominent in the surveys performed through the REVIZEE Program - Northeast and Central scores -which explored depths from about 20 m down to deep waters on the shelf and slope, resulting in the collection of several species of Brachyura without previous records in Bahia (Ramos-Porto et al., 2002; Torres et al., 2002; Viana et al., 2002, 2003a; Rodrigues & Young, 2003; Tavares & Young, 2004; Serejo et al., 2006; Torres et al., 2006). Between 2003 and 2007, several projects associated with the Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UESC), Ilhéus (Bahia, Brazil), aiming to inventory the crustacean fauna in coastal areas of the southeast and south of the state, were carried out. Another survey project sponsored by the Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia (Campus de Jequié) was carried out in Camamu Bay. These projects led to the documentation of new brachyuran records for the state's fauna, and the extensión of the known southern distributional limits of six species (Almeida et al., 2006, 2007a, 2007b). The Crustacean Collection of the UESC was created in 2003 to store the material collected in these inventories.

Oceanographic factors in the study area

The Bahia coast is part of the coast of eastern Brazil and extends from the Real River on the border with Sergipe (11°27'S, 37°20'W) to Barra do Riacho Doce on the border with Espirito Santo (18°20'S, 39°40'W). This area includes two (Todos os Santos and Camamu) of Brazil's three largest bays, as well as the largest reef complex in the South Atlantic (Abrolhos) (Leão, 2002) (Fig. 1). The study area extends from the estuaries and beaches to the continental shelf and slope, to a depth of 750 m.


Climate and associated oceanographic processes (waves and coastal currents) that affect the coast of Bahia are controlled by the South Atlantic trade winds, which strongly influence the wave and sediment dispersión patterns along the Bahia coast; and by cold fronts, resulting from the northward movement of polar masses. These cold fronts reach to about 10° or lower latitudes during the winter, and, though not possessing the strong thermal gradient observed in the south and southeast regions of Brazil, they constitute the principal rain-forming mechanism in southern Bahia (Bittencourt et al., 2000; Andrade et al., 2003; Aragao, 2004; Domínguez, 2006).

The Bahia coast has two basic typologies, which ¿Ilústrate different types of sedimentation. In the north and central regions is the Camamu-Todos os Santos rift, where some of the largest Brazilian bays are located. Sedimentation in this part is strongly influenced by waves. In the south, rivers discharge large amounts of sediment into the ocean, producing classic wave-dominated deltas. This type of coast extends southward as far as the mouth of the Paraíba do Sul River and is typical of Brazil's eastern región (Dominguez, 2006).

The area considered is under the influence of the Brazil Current, which originates at about 10°S (Stramma et al., 1990); this current causes high salinity and temperatee and transparent waters. Ac-cording to Kempf (1971), river discharges have, in general, only local consequences. Among the main rivers forming extensive estuarine areas, some de-serve special mention: from north to the south, the Paraguacu River, flowing into western Todos os Santos Bay; the Contas River, with its mouth at the city of Itacaré; the Pardo River, with its mouth at Canavieiras; the Jequitinhonha River and its mouth at Belmonte, and the Mucuri River, with its mouth at the city of Mucuri (Fig. 1).

The continental shelf of Bahia can be divided into two well-defined sectors. In the first, north of Ilhéus (14-15°S), the shelf is narrow, with a strong depth gradient and isobaths arranged almost parallel to the coastline. In the second sector, south of Ilheus, the shelf widens and has a low depth gradient and isobaths with irregular contours (Bittencourt et al, 2000). The northern part is 10 km wide off Salvador, narrowing to 5 km off Itacaré (14°16'S), the narrowest stretch of the Brazilian continental shelf (Lana et al, 1996; Freiré & Domínguez, 2006). In the southern sector, the main physiographic features are the Royal Charlóte Bank, reaching 100 km off Belmonte (15°51'S), and the Abrolhos Bank, located 190-200 km off Caravelas (17°45'S) (Lana et al, 1996).

Little is still known about the composition of the bottom sediments on the Bahia shelf, especially south of Todos os Santos Bay (Lana et al, 1996). In general, the surface bottom sediments in shallow waters constitute two great sedimentary facies of biogenic and terrigenous nature, distributed in parallel along the coastline (Leão & Brichta, 1996). Freiré & Domínguez (2006) reported that the break of the central continental shelf in Bahia between Ponta do Muta (13°52'S) and Olivenca (14°56'S) is about 60 m, and the bottom in this stretch is basically composed of two sediment types: sandy and muddy siliciclastics, restricted to the coastal face and inner shelf; and carbonate sediments, mainly located on the middle and outer shelf and on the slope. The dominance of calcareous algae on the bottoms, which is characteristic of northeast Brazil, is also seen in the study area. The upper limit of this algae zone is linked to the end of the land's influence and varíes accordingly. Generally, it is located near the coast at about the 20-m isobath, except at Abrolhos, where it is farther offshore. The lower limit is dependent on light penetration, and is located at the beginning of the slope at depths of 100 m or more. South of Abrolhos, the calcareous-algae bottoms are deeper and become less important (Kempf, 1970, 1971).

MATERIAL AND METHODS

The species list presented herein was based on an exhaustive analysis of the literatee effectively pub-lished up to 2007. Sources of restricted access such as monographs or theses, as well as congress com-munications, were not used in the checklist. Biological and fishery papers were also not included in the review. This contribution does not aim to resolve taxonomic problems, but to provide investigators with a starting point for studies that are taxonomic, ecological, or zoogeographical in nature. This list is also based on the material deposited in the Carcinological Collection of the Museu de Zoología of the Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (MZUESC), which comprises material of Brachyura collected in Bahia between 2003 and 2007, between 13°56'S, 39°05'W and 18°05'S, 39°33'W. For each species, the geographical distribution, previous records in Bahia including synonymous ñames under which a species was previously cited (if any), and the reference for the description are provided. When available, the ñame of the collection site is provided. If a site was not mentioned by the authors, the geographical coordinates are provided. For material collected in the Thayer, Hartt, Hassler, Albatross, Challenger, Almirante Saldanha, and Calypso expeditions and the REVIZEE Program, the station number is provided, and additional data (coordinates and depths) are listed in Table 1. For references that do not identify a site or provide coordinates, the citation was given only as "Bahia". Sampling depth was also included when available. Species marked with an asterisk are represented in the Crustacean Collection of the MZUESC. Comments on the historical nature, geographical distribution, and taxonomic changes were inserted when relevant, especially those that occurred after the landmark review of Melo(1996). The classification into superfamilies and families follows the proposal of Martin & Davis (2001). The classification of Karasawa & Schweitzer (2006) was followed for the complex group Xanthoidea sensu lato (superfamilies Pilumnoidoidea, Xanthoidea, Eriphioidea, Goneplacoidea, and Portunoidea) based on a profound phylogenetic study including recent and fossil genera. However, several genera of this superfamily treated in this publication were not included by the authors in their analyses. Karasawa et al. (2008) evaluated the Portunoidea, and their find-ings indicated that this superfamily is much more diverse at the family level than previously recognized. Subfamilies were not used. The order of families within each superfamily and of species within each family is alphabetic. Although classification proposals always represent divergent opinions, the objective of this study was not to discuss the systematic position of the species in higher categories such as superfamily, family, and subfamily. The división of the eastern Brazilian coast into zoogeographical provinces is based on the proposals of Coelho & Ramos (1972) and Coelho et al. (1978). Thus, the Brazilian coast is divided into three provinces: (1) Guyanas, extending from the states of Amapá to Maranhão; (2) Brazilian, from Maranhão to Espirito Santo; and (3) Paulista, from Espirito Santo to southern Brazil (Fig. 2).



For the species classification according to depth, in Table 2, we adopted the classification used by Barreto et al. (1993b): 0-80 m, coastal species; 0 to >80 m, eurybathyal species; >80 m, bathyal species. Abbreviations used in the Results section are Exp. (Expedition) and St. (Station).


RESULTS

Listof species:

Infraorder Brachyura Latreille, 1802
Superfamily Homolodromioidea Alcock, 1900
Family Homolodromiidae Alcock, 1900

1. Homolodromia monstrosa Martin, Christiansen & Trautwein, 2001

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Surinam, Guyana, and Brazil (Bahia) (Tavares & Young, 2004).

Previous records: Tavares & Young (2004), St. E-0517 (REVIZEE Program, Central Score).

Description: Martin et al, 2001: 319, figs. 4-7.

Superfamily Dromioidea de Haan, 1833
Family Dromiidae de Haan, 1833

2.  Dromia erythropus (G. Edwards, 1771)

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Bermuda, Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, northern South America, and Brazil (Fernando de Noronha, and from Amapá to Santa Catarina). Central Atlantic - Ascensión (Manning & Chace, 1990; Melo& Campos Jr., 1999; Viana et al, 2003a, 2003b).

Previous records: Rathbun (1937); Forest (1974); Gouvêa (1986a), Salvador; Melo& Campos Jr. (1999), Arembepe and Baía de Salvador (= Todos os Santos Bay).

Description: Melo& Campos Jr., 1999: 279, Fig. 2

3. Dromia gouveai Melo& Campos Jr., 1999*

 Distribution: Western Atlantic - Brazil (Bahia and São Paulo) (Melo& Campos Jr., 1999).

Previous records: Melo& Campos Jr. (1999) and Meloet al (2003), Salvador; Almeida et al (2007a), Ilhéus coast, 20 m.

Description: Melo& Campos Jr., 1999: 281, Fig. 3.

Remarks: The type locality of D. gouveai is "Geribo-tuba", Salvador (Melo& Campos Jr., 1999; Meloet al, 2003). We believe that the correct ñame of the locality is "Praia de Geribatuba", municipality of Vera Cruz, Itaparica Island, near Salvador.

4.  Hypoconcha arcuata Stimpson, 1858*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - North Carolina, Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, Surinam, and Brazil (from Amapá to São Paulo) (Melo& Campos Jr., 1999).

Previous records: Joly et al. (1969) and Gomes Corrêa (1972), Abrolhos; Barreto et al. (1993a); Almeida et al. (2007b), Camamu Bay.

Description: Melo& Campos Jr., 1999: 284, Fig. 4.

5.  Hypoconcha parasítica (Linnaeus, 1763)

Distribution: Western Atlantic - North Carolina to Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, northern South America, and Brazil (from Amapá to Santa Catarina) (Melo& Campos Jr., 1999).

Previous records: Hypoconcha sabulosa Guérin-Méneville, 1854 - Coelho (1966); Coelho & Ramos (1972); Coelho & Ramos-Porto (1989). Hypoconcha parasítica - Barreto et al. (1993a); Melo& Campos Jr. (1999), Salvador.

Description: Melo& Campos Jr., 1999: 285, Fig. 5.

6.  Moreiradromia antillensis (Stimpson, 1858)*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Bermuda, North Carolina, Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, northern South America, and Brazil (from Amapá to Rio Grande do Sul). Central Atlantic - Ascensión (Manning & Chace, 1990; Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Dromidia Antillensis (sic) - Smith (1869), Abrolhos. Dromidia antillensis - Moreira (1901); Rathbun (1937); Rodrigues da Costa (1968), Abrolhos (R/V Calypso, Stations 1816-1818); Joly et al. (1969) and Gomes Corrêa (1972), Abrolhos; Coelho & Ramos (1972), "Bahia" and seamounts off Bahia; Gouvêa (1986a), Salvador; Coelho & Ramos-Porto (1989); Barreto et al. (1993a). Cryptodromiop-sis antillensis - Melo& Campos Jr. (1999), Salvador, Itagi (doubtful locality, possibly misspelled), Itapegipe (misspelled = Itapagipe Peninsula, Salvador) and Abrolhos (R/V Calypso, St. 1818 and R/V Almirante Saldanha, St. 1966). Moreiradromia antillensis - Serejo et al. (2006), St. C5-7R (REVIZEE Program, Central Score); Almeida et al. (2007a, 2007b), Ilhéus coast and Camamu Bay, respectively.

Description: Melo& Campos Jr., 1999: 276, Fig. 1 (as C. antillensis).

Remarks: Species referred several times from Bahia as D. antillensis, until 1993. Melo& Campos Jr. (1999), reviewing the family Dromiidae in Brazil, reported this crab as Cryptodromiopsis antillensis. Finally, Guinot & Tavares (2003) transferred it to the new genus Moreiradromia Guinot & Tavares, 2003.

Superfamily Raninoidea de Haan, 1839
Family Raninidae de Haan, 1839

7. Raninoides loevis (Latreille, 1825)*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - North Carolina, Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, Venezuela, and Brazil (from Amapá to São Paulo) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Barreto et al. (1993a); Almeida et al. (2007a), Ilhéus coast.

Description: Melo, 1996: 116.

Family Symethidae Goeke, 1981

8. Symethis variolosa (Fabricius, 1793)

Distribution: Western Atlantic - North Carolina, Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, and Brazil (Fernando de Noronha, and from Amapá to São Paulo) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Zanclifer caribensis (De Fremin-ville, 1832) - Henderson (1888), off Salvador (Challenger Exp.); Moreira (1901). Symethis variolosa -Coelho & Ramos (1972); Barrete et al. (1993a); Serejo et al. (2006), St. C5-5R (REVIZEE Program, Central Score).

Description: Melo, 1996: 117.

Superfamily Dorippoidea MacLeay, 1838
Family Dorippidae MacLeay, 1838

9. Ethusa americana H. Milne-Edwards, 1880

 Distribution: Western Atlantic - North Carolina, Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, and Brazil (from Maranhao to Rio de Janeiro) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Ethusa mascarone americana -Rodrigues da Costa (1968), Abrolhos (R/V Calypso, St. 1817); Gomes Corrêa (1972), Abrolhos. Ethusa americana - Barrete et al. (1993a), Serejo et al. (2006), St. C5-5R (REVIZEE Program, Central Score).

Description: Melo, 1996: 106.

Superfamily Calappoidea Milne-Edwards, 1837
Family Calappidae Milne-Edwards, 1837

10. Acanthocarpus alexandri Stimpson, 1871

 Distribution: Western Atlantic - Massachusetts, from North Carolina to Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, Brazil (from Piaui to Rio Grande do Sul), and Uruguay (Melo, 1996; Ramos-Porto, et al., 2002; Rodrigues & Young, 2003).

Previous records: Ramos-Porto et al. (2002) and Viana et al. (2003a), Cruise 3, St. 12 (REVIZEE Program, Northeast Score).

Description: Rodrigues & Young, 2003: 2, Figs. 1-2.

11. Acanthocarpus bispinosus H. Milne-Edwards, 1880

 Distribution: Western Atlantic - Florida (Gulf of México), Antilles, and Brazil (from Pernambuco to Bahia) (Powers, 1977; Ramos-Porto et al., 2002; Rodrigues & Young, 2003).

Previous records: Rodrigues & Young (2003), off Boipeba Island (450-500 m) and Itacaré (278-522 m) (REVIZEE Program, Central Score); Serejo et al. (2006), St. C5-504 (REVIZEE Program, Central Score).

Description: Rodrigues & Young, 2003: 5, Figs. 3-4.

12. Calappa galloides Stimpson, 1859*

 Distribution: Western Atlantic - Bermuda, and from Florida to Brazil (Fernando de Noronha, and from Alagoas to Rio Grande do Sul). Eastern Atlantic -from Canary Islands to Angola. Central Atlantic -Ascensión (Manning & Chace, 1990; Melo, 1996; González et al., 2000).

Previous records: Calappa gallus (Herbst, 1803) -Rathbun (1898, 1937), "Bahia" (Albatross Exp. and material deposited in the Copenhagen Museum); Moreira (1901); Coelho & Ramos (1972); Gouvêa (1986b), Salvador; Barrete et al. (1993a). Calappa galloides - Almeida et al. (2007a), Ilhéus coast, 40-41 m.

Description: Melo, 1996: 124 (as C. gallus).

Remarks: This species was first reported from Bahia, as C. gallus, by Rathbun (1898), who examined material collected during the Albatross Expedition. Calappa galloides was considered by her as a júnior synonym of C. gallus, with a range covering the Atlantic, extending to the Pacific (see Rathbun, 1898, 1937). Examining specimens from Ascensión, Manning & Chace (1990) attributed the previous Atlantic records of C. gallus to C. galloides.

13.  Calappa ocellata Holthuis, 1958*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - North Carolina, Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, northern South America, and Brazil (from Amapá to Rio de Janeiro) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Callappa flammea (misspelled) Herbst, 1794 - Joly et al. (1969), Abrolhos. Callappa ocelata (misspelled) - Gomes Corrêa (1972), Abrolhos. Calappa ocellata - Barrete et al. (1993a); Almeida et al. (2007a, 2007b), Ilhéus coast and Camamu Bay, respectively.

Description: Melo, 1996: 126.

14. Cryptosoma balguerii (Desbonne, 1867)

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Bermuda, and from North Carolina to Brazil (from Amapá to Rio de Janeiro) (Galil & Clark, 1996; Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Cycloes bairdii Stimpson, 1860 -Coelho & Ramos (1972); Barrete et al. (1993a).

Description: Galil & Clark, 1996: 184, Figs. 1D-F, 3B,4.

Remarks: Galil & Clark (1996), reviewing the no-menclature of the genera Cryptosoma Brullé, 1837 and Cycloes de Haan, 1837, attributed the western Atlantic records of Cycloes bairdii to Cryptosoma balguerii. Cryptosoma also includes two eastern Pacific species, one of them C. bairdii, which ranges from Baja California, México, to Costa Rica. The Indo-Pacific species group was assigned to the genus Cycloes.

Family Hepatidae Stimpson, 1871

15. Hepatuspudibundus (Herbst, 1785)*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Georgia, Gulf of México, Antilles, northern South America, and Brazil (from Amapá to Rio Grande do Sul) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Hepatus princeps (Herbst, 1794) -Rathbun (1937), Plataforma (Salvador, Hartt Explo-rations). Hepatus pudibundus - Coelho & Ramos (1972); Gouvêa (1986b), Salvador, Candeias, and Itaparica Island; Almeida et al. (2007a, 2007b), IIhéus coast (15-16 m) and Camamu Bay, respectively.

Description: Melo, 1996: 131.

Superfamily Leucosioidea Samouelle, 1819
Family Leucosiidae Samouelle, 1819

16. Callidactylus asper Stimpson, 1871

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Bermuda, North Carolina, Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, Colombia, and Brazil (from Amapá to Bahia) (Melo, 1996; Serejo eí a/., 2006).

Previous records: Serejo et al. (2006), REVIZEE Program, Central Score.

Description: Melo, 1996: 157.

17. Ebalia stimpsoni A. Milne-Edwards, 1880

Distribution: Western Atlantic - North Carolina, Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, Colombia, and Brazil (from Amapá to São Paulo) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Ebalia stimpsonii (sic) - Rodrigues da Costa (1968), Abrolhos (R/V Calypso, St. 1817 and 1827); Coelho & Ramos (1972); Gomes Corrêa (1972), Abrolhos; Coelho & Ramos-Porto (1986). Ebalia stimpsoni - Coelho & Torres (1980), Salvador and Porto Seguro; Barreto et al. (1993a); Young & Serejo (2005), Abrolhos.

18. Acanthilia intermedia (Miers, 1886)

Description: Melo, 1996: 139. IS.Acanthilia intermedia (Miers, 1886)

Distribution: Western Atlantic - North Carolina, South Carolina, Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, northern South America, and Brazil (from Maranhão to Rio de Janeiro) (Melo, 1996). Previous records: Iliacantha intermedia - Miers (1886), off Salvador (Challenger Exp.); Coelho & Torres (1980), Salvador; Barreto etal. (1993a).

Description: Melo, 1996: 159 (asi intermedia)

Remarks: I. intermedia was described from a speci-men obtained during the Challenger Expedition off Salvador (Miers, 1886). Galil (2000) removed this species to the monotypic genus Acanthilia.

19.  Iliacantha liodactylus Rathbun, 1898*

 Distribution: Western Atlantic - Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, northern South America, and Brazil (from Amapá to Bahia) (Melo, 1996; Almeida et al, 2007a).

Previous records: Coelho & Ramos (1972); Coelho & Torres (1980), Salvador; Coelho & Ramos-Porto (1986); Barreto et al (1993a); Almeida et al. (2007a), Ilhéus coast.

Description: Melo, 1996: 160.

20. Iliacantha sparsa Stimpson, 1871

 Distribution: Western Atlantic - Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, Colombia, and Brazil (from Para to Espirito Santo) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Coelho & Ramos (1972); Coelho & Torres (1980), Salvador; Coelho & Ramos-Porto (1986); Barreto etal. (1993a).

Description: Melo, 1996: 161.

21.  Lithadia brasiliensis (von Martens, 1872)

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Brazil (from Para to São Paulo) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Lithadia cariosa Stimpson, 1860 -Miers (1886), off Salvador (Challenger Exp.).

Description: Melo, 1996: 141.

22.  Lithadia vertiginosa (Coelho, 1973)

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Brazil (Seamounts off Ceará, and from Para to Bahia) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Ebalia cariosa (Stimpson, 1860) -Rodrigues da Costa (1968), "Passos de Jucurussu" (R/V Calypso, St. 1830). Ebalia vertiginosa - Coelho & Torres (1980), Salvador. Lithadia vertiginosa - Coelho & Ramos-Porto (1986); Barreto et al. (1993a).

Description: Melo, 1996: 144.

23. Myropsis quinquespinosa Stimpson, 1871

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Massachusetts, New Jersey, North Carolina, South Carolina, Florida, Gulf of México, Central America, Antilles, nor-thern South America, Brazil (Para, and from Paraiba to Rio Grande do Sul), and Uruguay (Melo, 1996; Torres et al. ,2002).

Previous records: Torres et al. (2002), Cruise 3, St. 60 (REVIZEE Program, Northeast Score); Viana et al. (2003a), same station plus 11°36'S, 37°12.8'W (375 m) and 11°36.3'S, 37°13.1'W (365 m); Serejo et al. (2006) (REVIZEE Program, Central Score).

Description: Torres et al.,, 2002: 109, Fig. 1.

24. Persephona lichtensteinü Leach, 1817*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - from Venezuela to Brazil (from Amapáto São Paulo) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Almeida et al. (2007a, 2007b), Ilhéus coast (15-16 m) and Camamu Bay, respec-tively.

Description: Melo, 1996: 152.

25. Persephona mediterránea (Herbst, 1794)*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - from New Jersey to Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, northern South America, Brazil (from Amapá to Rio Grande do Sul), and Uruguay (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Almeida et al. (2007a), Ilhéus coast, and possibly Miers (1886) (see remarks on P. punctata).

Description: Melo, 1996: 153.

26. Persephona punctata (Linnaeus, 1758)*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Antilles, northern South America, and Brazil (from Amapá to Rio Grande do Sul) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Miers (1886), off Salvador (Challenger Exp.); Coelho & Torres (1980); Almeida et al. (2007a, 2007b), Ilhéus coast (15-16 m) and Camamu Bay, respectively.

Description: Melo, 1996: 154.

Remarks: Miers (1886) mentioned the occurrence of one individual of P. punctata off Salvador, among the material dredged by the Challenger. He said, in litt.: "The characteristic coloration is in this speci-men almost obliterated". This remark led Torres (1998) to suggest that the material analyzed by Miers (1886) could belong to P. mediterránea, a species that has reddish spots on the dorsal región of the carapace. It is possible to note these subtle spots in Píate XXV of Miers' publication.

27. Speloeophorus elevatus Rathbun, 1898

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, and Brazil (from Maranhão to Bahia) (Melo, 1996; Melo& Torres, 1998).

Previous records: Coelho & Torres (1980), Salvador; Coelho & Ramos-Porto (1986); Melo& Torres (1998), St. 1981 (R/V Almirante Saldanha); Barrete et al. (1993a); Serejo et al. (2006), St. C5-2R (REVIZEE Program, Central Score).

Description: Melo& Torres, 1998: 124, Figs. 4-6.

Superfamily Majoidea Samouelle, 1819
Family Epialtidae MacLeay, 1838

28. Acanthonyx dissimulatus Coelho, 1993*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Brazil (from Maranhão to São Paulo) (Coelho & Torres, 1993; Melo, 1996; Dall'Occo et al, 2004).

Previous records: Acanthonyx petiverii H. Milne-Edwards, 1834 - Rathbun (1894, 1925), Mar Grande, Bay of Bahia (= Todos os Santos Bay) (Hartt Explorations); Moreira (1901); Gouvêa (1986a), Salvador. Acanthonyx dissimulatus - Young & Serejo (2005), Abrolhos; Almeida et al. (2007b), Camamu Bay.

Description: Melo, 1996: 170.

29. Epialtus bituberculatus H. Milne-Edwards, 1834*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, northern South America, and Brazil (from Cearáto São Paulo) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Joly et al. (1969) and Gomes Corrêa (1972), Abrolhos; Gouvêa (1986a), Salvador; Serejo et al. (2006), REVIZEE Program, Central Score; Almeida et al. (2007b), Camamu Bay.

Description: Melo, 1996: 174.

Remarks: Epialtus bituberculatus was collected on the coast of Bahia during the REVIZEE Program, between 20-67 m, and not at the stations C5-4F (1200 m) and C5-10R (50 m), as reported by Serejo et al. (2006) (C. Serejo,pera. comm.).

Family Inachidae MacLeay, 1838

30. Aepinus septemspinosus (H. Milne-Edwards, 1879)

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, and Brazil (Fernando de Noronha and Rocas Atoll, and from Para to São Paulo) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Coelho & Ramos (1972); Joly et al. (1969) and Gomes Corrêa (1972), Abrolhos; Barretera/. (1993a).

Description: Melo, 1996: 180.

31. Anomalothir furcillatus (Stimpson, 1871)

 Distribution: Western Atlantic - North Carolina, Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, and Brazil (from Bahia to Rio Grande do Sul) (Melo, 1996; Viana et al, 2003a).

Previous records: Viana et al. (2003a), 11°36.3'S, 37°13.1'W (REVIZEE Program, Northeast Score, 365 m).

Description: Coelho, 1999: 157, Fig. 2.

32. Coryrhynchus algicola (Stebbing, 1914)*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Colombia and Brazil (from Maranhao to São Paulo) (Melo, 1996; Coelho, 2006).

Previous records: Podochela riisei Stimpson, 1860 -Coelho (1971), Abrolhos. Podochela algicola -Coelho & Ramos (1972). Podochela (Coryrhynchus) algicola - Barrete et al. (1993a). Coryrhynchus algicola - Coelho (2006), Camamu Bay, Ilhéus, and R/V Calypso (St. 89 and 1827); Almeida et al. (2007a, 2007b), Ilhéus coast (20 m) and Camamu Bay, respectively.

Description: Melo, 1996: 185 (asP. algicola).

Remarks: C. algicola was cited from Bahia for the first time by Coelho (1971), as Podochela riisei. Further records (Coelho & Ramos, 1972; Barrete et al, 1993a) were published under P. algicola. Coelho (2006) revised the genus Podochela Stimpson, 1860 on the Caribbean and Atlantic South America coast, including the species in the genus Coryrhynchus Kingsley, 1879. The rostrum in both genera is not spine-shaped as in Ericerodes Rathbun, 1897; rather it is more rounded in Coryrhynchus, resembling a visor, and is triangular in Podochela.

33. Ericerodes gracilipes (Stimpson, 1871)*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - North Carolina, Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, northern South America, and Brazil (from Amapá to Rio Grande do Sul) (Melo, 1996; Coelho, 2006).

Previous records: Podochela gracilipes - Coelho (1971); Coelho & Ramos (1972). Podochela (Ericerodes) gracilipes - Barrete et al. (1993a). Ericerodes gracilipes - Coelho (2006), St. 198IB (R/V Almirante Saldanha).

Description: Melo, 1996: 187 (as P. gracilipes).

Remarks: The species was moved from the genus Podochela to Ericerodes. Species of Ericerodes differ from Coryrhynchus by the triangular rostrum, with its apex ending in a spine (Coelho, 2006).

34. Ericerodes minusculus (Coelho, 1972)

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Brazil (Seamounts off Ceará and Rio Grande do Norte, and from Ceará to Bahia) (Melo, 1996; Coelho, 2006).

Previous records: Podochela (Ericerodes) minúscula - Barrete et al. (1993a).

Description: Melo, 1996: 188 (asP. minúscula).

Remarks: Recently moved from Podochela to Ericerodes Rathbun, 1897 (Coelho, 2006).

35. Metoporhaphis calcarata (Say, 1818)*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - North Carolina, Florida, Gulf of México, and Brazil (from Rio Grande do Norte to Rio de Janeiro) (Melo, 1996; Ferreira & Sankarankutty, 2002).

Previous records: Metoporhaphis forflculatus A. Milne-Edwards, 1878 - Miers (1886), off Salvador (Challenger Exp.); Moreira (1901). Metoporhaphis calcarata - Joly et al. (1969) and Gomes Corrêa (1972), Abrolhos; Almeida et al. (2003, 2007b), Camamu Bay; Almeida et al. (2007a), Ilhéus coast (20 m).

Description: Melo, 1996: 183.

36. Podochela brasiliensis Coelho, 1972*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Brazil (from Piauí to Espirito Santo) (Melo, 1996; Coelho, 2006; Serejo et al, 2006).

Previous records: Podochela riisei - Gomes Corrêa (1972), Abrolhos. Podochela brasiliensis - Barrete et al. (1993a); Almeida et al. (2003, 2007b), Cama-mu Bay; Coelho (2006), Camamu Bay and Abrolhos; Serejo et al. (2006), St. C5-5R (REVIZEE Program, Central Score).

Description: Melo, 1996: 186.

37. Stenorhynchus seticornis (Herbst, 1788)*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - North Carolina, Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, northern South America, Brazil (from Amapá to Rio Grande do Sul), Uruguay, and Argentina (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Leptopodia sagittaria (Fabricius, 1793) - A. Milne-Edwards (1878); Miers (1886), off Salvador (Challenger Exp.); Rathbun (1894, 1925), Mar Grande and Periperi (Salvador) (Hartt Explora-tions). Stenorhynchus seticornis - Joly et al. (1969) and Gomes Corrêa (1972), Abrolhos; Coelho (1971), Salvador; Coelho & Ramos (1972); Gouvêa (1986a), Lauro de Freitas and Salvador; Barreto et al. (1993a); Almeida et al. (2007a, 2007b), Ilhéus coast (20-49 m) and Camamu Bay, respectively.

Description: Melo, 1996: 190.

Family Inachoididae Dana, 1851

38. Batrachonotus brasiliensis Rathbun, 1894

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Brazil (from Para to São Paulo) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Barreto et al. (1993a).

Description: Melo, 1996: 197.

39. Collodes inermis A. Milne-Edwards, 1878*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Antilles and Brazil (from Amapá to São Paulo) (Melo, 1996; Dall'Occo et al., 2004).

Previous records: A. Milne-Edwards (1878), A. Milne-Edwards & Bouvier (1923), and Rathbun (1925), "Bahia" (Hassler Exp.); Joly et al. (1969) and Gomes Corrêa (1972), Abrolhos; Coelho & Ramos (1972); Gouvêa & Leite (1980), Itaparica Island; Barreto et al. (1993a); Almeida et al. (2007b), Camamu Bay.

Description: Melo, 1996: 200.

Remarks: C. inermis was originally described by A. Milne-Edwards (1878) from material obtained by the Hassler Expedition on the coast of Bahia (11°49'S, 37°27'W).

40. Collodes rostratus A. Milne-Edwards, 1878

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Brazil (from Bahia to Rio Grande do Sul) and Argentina (to Patagonia) (Gomes Corrêa, 1972; Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Joly et al. (1969) and Gomes Corrêa (1972), Abrolhos.

Description: Melo, 1996: 200.

41. Inachoides fórceps A. Milne-Edwards, 1879*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - from North Carolina to Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, Guyanas, and Brazil (from Amapá to Rio de Janeiro) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Coelho (1971), Abrolhos; Coelho & Ramos (1972); Barreto et al. (1993a); Almeida et al. (2007b), Camamu Bay.

Description: Melo, 1996: 206.

Family Mithracidae MacLeay, 1838

42. Leptopisa setirostris (Stimpson, 1871)

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Florida, Antilles, Venezuela, and Brazil (from Maranhao to Espirito Santo) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Rathbun (1925), "Bahia-2" (11°49'S, 37°20'W, Hassler Exp.); Barreto et al. (1993a).

Description: Melo, 1996: 213.

43. Macrocoeloma concavum Miers, 1886*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Antilles and Brazil (Fernando de Noronha, and from Maranhao to Bahia) (Melo, 1996; Almeida et al., 2007a).

Previous records: Macrocoeloma concava - Miers (1886), off Salvador (Challenger Exp.). Macrocoeloma concavum - Moreira (1901); Barreto et al. (1993a); Almeida et al. (2007a), Ilhéus coast, 40-44 m.

Description: Melo, 1996: 216.

Remarks: This species was described by Miers (1886) as M. concava, based on specimens collected during the Challenger Expedition at the Fernando de Noronha and Bahia stations.

44. Macrocoeloma eutheca (Stimpson, 1871)

Distribution: Western Atlantic - North Carolina, Florida, Gulf of México, Central America, Antilles, and Brazil (from Maranhao to Espirito Santo) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Coelho & Ramos (1972); Barreto etal. (1993a).

Description: Melo, 1996: 217.

45. Macrocoeloma laevigatum (Stimpson, 1860)*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Florida (Florida Keys), Antilles, and Brazil (from Para to Bahia) (Powers, 1977; Melo, 1996; Serejo etal., 2006).

Previous records: Serejo et al. (2006), St. C5-5R (REVIZEE Program, Central Score); Almeida et al. (2007b), Camamu Bay.

Description: Melo, 1996: 218.

46. Macrocoeloma septemspinosum (Stimpson, 1871)*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - North Carolina, Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, and Brazil (from Ceará to Espirito Santo) (Melo, 1996; Serejo et al, 2006).

Previous records: Macrocoeloma septemspinosa -Miers (1886), off Salvador (Challenger Exp.). Macrocoeloma septemspinosum - Moreira (1901); Bar-reto et al. (1993a); Almeida et al. (2007a), Ilhéus coast, 41-42 m.

Description: Melo, 1996: 219.

47. Macrocoeloma subparallelum (Stimpson, 1860)

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Gulf of México, Antilles, Venezuela, and Brazil (Fernando de No-ronha, and from Amapá to Espirito Santo) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Gouvêa (1986a), Salvador.

Description: Melo, 1996: 220.

48. Macrocoeloma trispinosum (Latreille, 1825)*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Bermuda, North Carolina, Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, and Brazil (Fernando de Noronha, and from Piauí to São Paulo) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Macrocoeloma trispinosa - Miers (1886), off Salvador (Challenger Exp.). Macrocoeloma trispinosum - Moreira (1901); Coelho & Ramos (1972); Barrete et al. (1993a).

Description: Melo, 1996: 221.

49. Microphrys antillensis Rathbun, 1920

Distribution: Western Atlantic - North Carolina, Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, and Brazil (from Paraíbato Rio de Janeiro) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Gouvêa & Leite (1980) and Gouvêa (1986a), Salvador; Young & Serejo (2005), Abrolhos; Türkay (1976).

Description: Melo, 1996: 223.

50.  Microphrys bicornutus (Latreille, 1825)*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Bermuda, from North Carolina to Florida, Gulf of México, Central America, Antilles, Venezuela, and Brazil (Fernando de Noronha, and from Maranhao to Rio Grande do Sul) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Milnia bicornuta Stimpson, 1860 -Smith (1869), Abrolhos. Microphrys bicornutus -Rathbun (1898), Abrolhos (Albatross Exp.); Rathbun (1925), Abrolhos (Albatross Exp.), Plataforma (Salvador, Hartt Explorations) and Porto Seguro (Thayer Exp., St. 102); Coelho (1971), Salvador; Coelho & Ramos (1972); Gomes Corrêa (1972), Abrolhos; Gouvêa & Leite (1980), Itaparica Island; Gouvêa (1986a), Salvador and Itaparica Island.

Description: Melo, 1996: 224.

51.  Mithraculus coryphe (Herbst, 1801)

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, northern South America, and Brazil (Fernando de Noronha, and from Ceará to São Paulo) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Mithraculus coronatus Stimpson, 1860 - Smith (1869), Abrolhos; Moreira (1901). Mithrax coryphe - Rathbun (1898), Abrolhos (Albatross Exp.). Mithrax (Mithraculus) coryphe -Rathbun (1925), Abrolhos (Albatross Exp.) and Mar Grande (Hartt Explorations); Coelho & Ramos (1972); Gomes Corrêa (1972), Abrolhos. Mithraculus corphe (misspelled) - Coelho & Torres (1990), Salvador.

Description: Melo, 1996: 228.

52. Mithraculus fórceps (A. Milne-Edwards, 1875)*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - from North Carolina to Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, Venezuela, and Brazil (Saint Paul's Rocks, Fernando de Noronha, Rocas Atoll, and from Maranhao to Santa Catarina) (Holthuis et al., 1980; Melo, 1996; Rieger &Giraldi, 1996).

Previous records: Mithrax fórceps - Miers (1886), off Salvador (Challenger Exp.); Rathbun (1898), Abrolhos (Albatross Exp.); Moreira (1901); Gouvêa (1986a), Salvador. Mithrax (Mithraculus) fórceps -Rathbun (1925), Abrolhos (Albatross Exp.) and Plataforma (Salvador, Hartt Explorations); Coelho (1971), Salvador; Coelho & Ramos (1972). Mithraculus fórceps - Coelho & Torres (1990), Salvador and Abrolhos; Barrete et al. (1993a); Young & Serejo (2005), Abrolhos; Serejo et al. (2006), St. C5-5R (REVIZEE Program, Central Score); Almeida et al. (2007b), Camamu Bay.

Description: Melo, 1996: 229.

53. Mithraculus scuptus (Lamarck,18181)

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, and Brazil (from Rio Grande do Norte to Bahia) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Mithrax (Mithraculus) sculptus -Rathbun (1925), Abrolhos (Hassler Exp.); Gomes Corrêa (1972), Abrolhos.

Description: Melo, 1996: 230.

54. Mithrax brazüiensis Rathbun, 1892*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Brazil (from Piauí to São Paulo) (Melo, 1996; Dall'Occo et al, 2004).

Previous records: Mithrax brazüiensis - Rathbun (1892), Mar Grande, Bay of Bahía (= Todos os Santos Bay, Hartt Explorations); Moreira (1901); Gouvéa (1986a), Itaparica Island. Mithrax (Mithrax) brazüiensis - Rathbun (1925), Mar Grande, Bay of Bahía (= Todos os Santos Bay, Hartt Explorations).

Description: Melo, 1996: 234.

Remarks: The type locality of M. brazüiensis is Mar Grande, Bay of Bahía (= Todos os Santos Bay) (Rathbun, 1892).

55. Mithrax hemphilli Rathbun, 1892

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Florida, Antilles, and Brazil (Rocas Atoll, and from Maranhão to Rio de Janeiro) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Mithrax hemphilli - Rathbun (1898), Abrolhos (Albatross Exp.); Moreira (1901); Coelho (1971), Salvador; Barreto et al. (1993a); Serejo et al. (2006), St. C5-2R (REVIZEE Program, Central Score). Mithrax (Mithrax) hemphilli - Rathbun (1925), Abrolhos (Albatross Exp.); Gomes Corrêa (1972), Abrolhos. Mithrax hemphüii (misspelled) - Gouvêa (1986a), Salvador.

Description: Melo, 1996: 236.

56. Mithrax hispidus (Herbst, 1790)

Distribution: Western Atlantic - from Delaware to southern Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, and Brazil (from Para to Santa Catarina) (Melo, 1996; Rieger&Giraldi,2001).

Previous records: Mithrax hispidus - Smith (1869), Abrolhos; Rathbun (1898), Abrolhos (Albatross Exp.); Gouvêa (1986a), Lauro de Freitas, Salvador, and Itaparica Island; Barreto et al (1993a). Mithrax (Mithrax) hispidus - Rathbun (1925), Plataforma and Bonfim (Salvador, Hartt Explorations), Porto Seguro (Thayer Exp., St. 102), and Abrolhos (Hassler Exp.); Coelho & Ramos (1972); Gomes Corrêa (1972), Abrolhos.

Description: Melo, 1996: 237.

57. Mithrax tortugae Rathbun, 1920*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Florida, Antilles, northern South America, and Brazil (from Para to Santa Catarina) (Melo, 1996; Barros & Pimentel, 2001; Rieger & Giraldi, 2001).

Previous records: Almeida et al. (2007a), Ilhéus coast.

Description: Melo, 1996: 238.

58. Nemausa acuticornis (Stimpson, 1871)*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - from North Carolina to Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, and Brazil (from Amapá to São Paulo) (Melo, 1996; Alves et al, 2006).

Previous records: Mithrax (Mithrax) acuticornis -Rathbun (1925), "Bahia-2" (Hassler Exp.); Rodrigues da Costa (1968), Abrolhos and "Passos de Ju-curussu" (R/V Calypso, St. 1817 and St. 1830, re-spectively); Coelho & Ramos (1972); Gomes Corrêa (1972), Abrolhos. Mithrax acuticornis - Gouvêa & Leite (1980), Salvador. Nemausa acuticornis - Bar-reto et al. (1993a); Serejo et al. (2006), St. C5-2R and C5-10R (REVIZEE Program, Central Score); Almeida et al (2007a), Ilhéus coast, 41^12 m.

Description: Melo, 1996: 241.

59. Nemausa cornutus (de Saussure, 1857)

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Bermuda, Florida (Florida Straits), Antilles, and Brazil (from Amapá to Espirito Santo) (Melo, 1996; Serejo et al, 2006).

Previous records: Mithrax cornutus - Miers (1886) and Rathbun (1925), off Salvador (Challenger Exp.); Moreira (1901). Nemausa cornutus - Barreto et al (1993a).

Description: Melo, 1996: 242.

60. Stenocionops furcatus (Olivier, 1791)*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Georgia, Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, Colombia, and Brazil (from Ceará to Rio Grande do Sul) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Pericera cornuta Milne-Edwards, 1834-A. Milne-Edwards (1873); Stenocionops furcata - Türkay (1976); Almeida et al. (2007a), Ilhéus coast.

Description: Melo, 1996: 244 (as S. furcata).

Family Pisidae Dana, 1851

61. Chorinus heros (Herbst, 1790)*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Bermuda, Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, Venezuela, and Brazil (from Ceará to Bahia) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Rathbun (1894), Rio Vermelho (Salvador, Hartt Explorations); Rathbun (1925), Rio Vermelho and "Bahia" (material deposited in the Copenhagen Museum); Moreira (1901); Coelho & Ramos (1972); Barreto etal. (1993a).

Description: Melo, 1996: 254.

62.  Libinia ferreirae Brito Capello, 1871*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Venezuela and Brazil (from Para to Santa Catarina) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Almeida et al. (2007a), Ilhéus coast, 15-16 m.

Description: Melo, 1996: 260.

63.  Microlissa brasiliensis (Rathbun, 1923)

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Brazil (from Ceará to São Paulo) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Lissa brasiliensis - Rodrigues da Costa (1968), "Passos de Jucurussu" (R/V Calypso, St. 1830); Coelho & Ramos (1972). Microlissa brasiliensis - Barreto et al. (1993a).

Description: Melo, 1996: 262.

64.  Notolopas brasiliensis Miers, 1886*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Colombia, Venezuela, and Brazil (from Amapá to São Paulo) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Miers (1886), off Salvador (Challenger Exp.); Moreira (1901); Barreto et al. (1993a); Almeida et al. (2007a, 2007b), Ilhéus coast (20 m) and Camamu Bay, respectively.

Description: Melo, 1996: 264.

Remarks: Miers (1886) described N. brasiliensis from specimens dredged off Salvador, during the Challenger Expedition.

65.  Pelia rotunda A. Milne-Edwards, 1875*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Brazil (from Para to Rio Grande do Sul), Uruguay, and Argentina (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Coelho & Ramos (1972); Barreto et al. (1993a); Almeida et al. (2007b), Camamu Bay.

Description: Melo, 1996: 265.

66. Rochinia crassa (A. Milne-Edwards, 1879)

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Massachusetts, Gulf of México, Antilles, northern South America, and Brazil (from Amapá to São Paulo) (Williams, 1984a; Viana et al., 2002; Dall'Occo et al., 2004).

Previous records: Viana et al. (2002, 2003a), Cruise 3, St. 50, 51, and 59 (REVIZEE Program, Northeast Score).

Description: Williams, 1984a: 322, Figs. 256,260a.

Family Tychidae Dana, 1851

67. Picroceroides tubularis Miers, 1886

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, and Brazil (from Maranhão to Espirito Santo) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Miers (1886), off Salvador (Challenger Exp.); Moreira (1901); Coelho & Ramos (1972); Barreto et al. (1993a); Serejo et al. (2006), St. C5-2R (REVIZEE Program, Central Score).

Description: Melo, 1996: 270.

Remarks: P. tubularis was described based on material collected by the Challenger from Fernando de Noronha and Bahia (Miers, 1886).

68. Pitho Iherminieri (Schramm, 1867)*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - from North Carolina to Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, and Brazil (Fernando de Noronha, and from Para to São Paulo) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Rodrigues da Costa (1968), Abro-lhos (R/V Calypso, St. 1815, 1817, 1818, 1827); Coelho (1971) and Gomes Corrêa (1972), Abrolhos; Coelho & Ramos (1972); Gouvêa & Leite (1980), Salvador; Barreto et al. (1993a); Almeida et al. (2007b), Camamu Bay.

Description: Melo, 1996: 271.

Superfamily Hymenosomatoidea MacLeay, 1838
Family Hymenosomatidae MacLeay, 1838

69. Elamena gordonae Monod, 1956*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Brazil (Sergipe and Bahia). Eastern Atlantic - from Guinea to Sierra Leone. Western Pacific - Australia (Queensland) (Lucas, 1980; Almeida et al., 2007b).

Previous records: Almeida et al. (2007b), Camamu Bay.

Description: Monod, 1956: 469, Figs. 629-637 [as Elamena (Trigonoplax) gordonae)].

Remarks: Known from few specimens throughout its geographic range. It was reported for the first time from Bahia by Almeida et al. (2007b). Knowledge of its distribution in the western Atlantic was then extended from the coast of Sergipe to Camamu Bay (13°54'14"S). Slight morphological differences in the carapace and abdomen between the two specimens from Camamu Bay were observed (Almeida et al., 2007b). Herein, we report the collection of a specimen (female, not ovigerous, lot MZUESC#837) at Nova Vinosa (17°53'00.9"S), extending the southernmost limit of the known range of E. gordonae.

Superfamily Parthenopoidea MacLeay, 1838 Family Parthenopidae MacLeay, 1838

70. Agolambrus agonus (Stimpson, 1871)

Distribution: Western Atlantic - North Carolina, Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, Guyanas, and Brazil (from Amapá to Rio Grande do Sul) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Parthenope (Parthenope) agona -Barretera/. (1993a).

Description: Melo, 1996: 285 [as Parthenope (Parthenope) agona].

Remarks: Included in the new genus Agolambrus by Tan & Ng (2007), which is monotypic. Agolambrus superficially resemble the Indo-West Pacific genus Parthenope Weber, 1795, but could be easily distin-guished by having a strongly produced ptery-gostomial ridge, that is visible in dorsal view. Other significative morphological differences between the two genera were discussed by Tan & Ng (2007).

71. Celatopesia concava (Stimpson, 1871)

Distribution: Western Atlantic - North Carolina, Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, and Brazil (from Maranhao to Rio de Janeiro) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Cryptopodia concava - Rodrigues da Costa (1969), Abrolhos, 8-24 m; Gomes Corrêa (1972), Abrolhos; Barrete et al. (1993a).

Description: Chiong &Ng, 1998: 205, Figs. 32-33.

Remarks: Chiong & Ng (1998) found several morphological differences to sepárate the two American species of Cryptopodia H. Milne-Edwards, 1834 (C concava and C. hassleri Rathbun, 1925) in a new genus Celatopesia Chiong & Ng, 1998. The species of Cryptopodia are now understood to be restricted to the Indo-Pacific.

72. Heterocrypta granúlala (Gibbes, 1850)

Distribution: Western Atlantic - from Massachusetts to Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, and Brazil (from Cearáto Paraná) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Miers (1886), off Salvador (Challenger Exp.); Moreira (1901).

Description: Melo, 1996: 279.

73. Heterocrypta lapídea Rathbun, 1901

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Antilles and Brazil (from Para to Rio Grande do Sul) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Gomes Corrêa (1972), Abrolhos; Barrete et al. (1993a); Almeida et al. (2007b), Ca-mamu Bay.

Description: Melo, 1996: 280.

74.  Piloslambrus guerini (Brito Capello, 1871)*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Antilles and Brazil (from Rio Grande do Norte to São Paulo) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Lambrus guérinii (sic) - Miers (1886), off Salvador (Challenger Exp.). Lambrus guerini - Moreira (1901). Platylambrus guerini -Almeida et al. (2007a), Ilhéus coast; Parthenope (Platylambrus) guerini - Türkay (1976).

Description: Melo, 1996: 288 [as Parthenope (Platylambrus) guerini].

Remarks: The genus Piloslambrus Tan & Ng, 2007, was erected to accommodate the eastern Pacific species Lambrus depressiusculus Stimpson, 1871 and the western Atlantic L. guerini. This genus bears some morphological similarities with the Indo-West Pacific genera Aulacolambrus Paúl'son, 1875 and Certolambrus Tan & Ng, 2003 (see Tan & Ng, 2007).

75.  Platylambrus serratus (H. Milne-Edwards, 1834)*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Bermuda, North Carolina, Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, northern South America, and Brazil (from Para to São Paulo) (Melo, 1996; Viana et al, 2003a).

Previous records: Lambrus serratus - Miers (1886), off Salvador (Challenger Exp.); Moreira (1901). Parthenope (Platylambrus) serrata - Barrete et al. (1993a). Platylambrus serratus - Almeida et al. (2007a), Ilhéus coast (20 m).

Description: Melo, 1996: 290 [as Parthenope (Platylambrus) serrata].

76. Thyrolambrus astroides Rathbun, 1894

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Gulf of México, Antilles, and Brazil (from Para to Rio de Janeiro) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Barrete et al. (1993a); Serejo et al. (2006), St. C5-12R (REVIZEE Program, Central Score).

Description: Melo, 1996: 294.

Superfamily Cancroidea Latreille, 1802
Family Atelecyclidae Ortmann, 1893

77. Trichopeltarionpezzutoi Tavares & Melo, 2005

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Brazil (Bahia, São Paulo, and Santa Catarina) (Tavares & Melo, 2005).

Previous records: Trichopeltarion nobile A. Milne-Edwards, 1880 - Tavares & Young (2004), St. D-0538 (REVIZEE Program, Central Score). Trichopeltarion pezzutoi - Tavares & Melo(2005) (same station).

Description: Tavares & Melo, 2005: 236, Figs. 1, 3.

Superfamily Pilumnoidoidea Guinot & Macpher-son,1987
Family Pilumnoididae Guinot
& Macpherson, 1987

78. Pilumnoides coelhoi Guinot & Macpherson, 1987

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Brazil (from Bahia to Santa Catarina) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Guinot & Macpherson (1987), Abrolhos (30 m); Serejo et al. (2006), St. C5-5R (REVIZEE Program, Central Score).

Description: Melo, 1996: 378.

Remarks: The type locality of P. coelhoi is Abrolhos Archipelago. The type material was dredged by the ship Commandant Parfait in 1888 (Guinot & Macpherson, 1987).

Superfamily Xanthoidea MacLeay, 1838
Family Domeciidae Ortmann, 1893

79. Domecia acanthophora (Desbonne, in Desbonne &Schramm, 1867)

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Bermuda, North Carolina, Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, northern South America, and Brazil (Saint Paul's Rocks, Rocas Atoll, Fernando de Noronha, and from Paraíba to São Paulo) (Melo, 1996; Alves et al., 2006).

Previous records: Domecia hispida Rathbun, 1930 -Joly et al. (1969), Abrolhos. Domecia acanthophora form acanthophora - Gomes Corrêa (1972), Abrolhos.

Description: Melo, 1996: 344.

Family Panopeidae Ortmann, 1893

80. Acantholobulus bermudensis (Benedict & Rathbun, 1891)*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Bermuda, Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, northern South America, and Brazil (from Ceará to Santa Catarina) (Melo, 1996; Felder & Martin, 2003).

Previous records: Panopeus bermudensis - Rathbun (1930), Bonfim (Salvador, Hartt Explorations); Joly etal. (1969), Abrolhos.

Description: Felder & Martin, 2003: 440, Figs. la-f, 2a-f, 3a-d.

Remarks: Species cited from Brazil as P. bermudensis, designated as the type species of the new genus Acantholobulus Felder & Martin, 2003. Hexapano-peus heblingi Rodrigues & Loyola e Silva, 1998 was considered a júnior synonym of A bermudensis. The record of P. mirqfloresensis Abele & Kim, 1989 from Brazil (Ferreira & Sankarankutty, 1997) was also attributed to A. bermudensis (see Felder & Martin, 2003).

81. Acantholobulus schmitti (Rathbun, 1930)*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Brazil (from Ceará to Santa Catarina) and Uruguay (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Hexapanopeus schmitti - Rathbun (1930), Bonfim (Salvador, Hartt Explorations); Gouvêa & Leite (1980), Itaparica Island; Gouvêa (1986a), Salvador. Acantholobulus schmitti -Almeida et al. (2006), Ilhéus.

Description: Melo, 1996: 360 (as H. schmitti).

Remarks: As Panopeus bermudensis, H. schmitti was included in the new genus Acantholobulus, be-cause of the morphological similarity between the tip of the first pair of male pleopods, the frontal región, the pattern of dentition on the antero-lateral margin of the carapace, and the larval development of both species (see Felder & Martin, 2003).

82. Cyrtoplax spinidentata (Benedict, 1892)

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Antilles and Brazil (from Ceará to Rio Grande do Sul) (Melo, 1996; Bezerra et al, 2005).

Previous records: Gouvêa (1971, 1986b), Candeias and Simoes Filho.

Description: Melo, 1996: 403.

83. Eurypanopeus abbreviatus (Stimpson; 1860)*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - east coast of the U.S.A., Gulf of México, Antilles, northern South America, and Brazil (from Ceará to Rio Grande do Sul) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Panopeus politus Smith, 1869 -Smith (1869), Abrolhos; Eurypanopeus abbreviatus - Rathbun (1930) (Hartt Explorations); Joly et al. (1969), Abrolhos; Gouvêa (1986a); Almeida et al. (2006), Ilhéus.

Description: Melo, 1996: 349.

Remarks: First recorded from Bahía by Smith (1989), who described P. politus (type locality Abrolhos), a júnior synonym of E. abbreviatus (see Rathbun, 1930).

84. Eurytium limosum (Say, 1818)*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Bermuda, Florida, Gulf of México, Central America, Antilles, northern South America, and Brazil (from Para to Santa Catarina) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Eurytium limosum - Rathbun (1930), Plataforma (Salvador, Hartt Explorations) and Ilhéus; Gomes Corrêa (1972), Abrolhos; Almeida et al. (2006), Ilhéus. Erytium limosum (misspel-led) - Joly et al. (1969), Abrolhos.

Description: Melo, 1996: 351.

85. Garthiope spinipes (A. Milne-Edwards, 1880)

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Bermuda, Florida, Gulf of México, Venezuela, and Brazil (from Amapá to São Paulo) (Melo, 1996; Alves et al, 2006).

Previous records: Micropanope spinipes - A. Milne-Edwards (1880a) and A. Milne-Edwards & Bouvier (1923), Abrolhos (Hassler Exp.); Miers (1886), off Salvador (Challenger Exp.); Moreira (1901); Rathbun (1930), Abrolhos (Hassler Exp.); Joly et al. (1969), Abrolhos.

Description: Melo, 1996: 354.

Remarks: The original description of G. spinipes was based on a specimen obtained at Abrolhos dur-ing the Hassler Expedition (A. Milne-Edwards, 1880a).

86. Hexapanopeus angustifrons (Benedict & Rathbun, 1891)*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - east coast of the U.S.A., Antilles, and Brazil (from Pernambuco to Santa Catarina) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Almeida et al. (2007b), Camamu Bay.

Description: Melo, 1996: 357.

87. Hexapanopeus caribbaeus (Stimpson 1871)*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Antilles, northern South America, and Brazil (from Para to Rio Grande do Sul) (Melo, 1996; Rieger etal, 1996).

Previous records: Almeida et al. (2006), Ilhéus. Description: Melo, 1996: 358.

88. Hexapanopeus paulensis Rathbun, 1930

 Distribution: Western Atlantic - South Carolina, Florida, Gulf of México, and Brazil (from Para to Santa Catarina) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Gouvêa (1986a), Itaparica Island. Description: Melo, 1996: 359.

89. Micropanope nuttingi (Rathbun, 1898)*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - North Carolina, Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, Surinam, and Brazil (from Amapá to São Paulo) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Gouvêa & Leite (1980), Salvador and Itaparica Island; Gouvêa (1986a), Salvador; Barrete et al. (1993a); Almeida et al. (2007b), Camamu Bay.

Description: Melo, 1996: 364.

90. Panopeus americanus de Saussure, 1857*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, northern South America, and Brazil (from Para to Santa Catarina) (Melo, 1996; Barros et al., 1997).

Previous records: Rathbun (1930), Plataforma and Bonfim (Salvador, Hartt Explorations); Joly et al. (1969) and Gomes Corrêa (1972), Abrolhos; Gouvêa (1986b), Candeias.

Description: Melo, 1996: 369.

91. Panopeus harttii Smith, 1869*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - east coast of the U.S.A., Antilles, and Brazil (from Maranhao to São Paulo). Central Atlantic - Ascensión (Manning & Chace, 1990; Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Panopeus harttii (sic) - Smith (1869), Abrolhos. Panopeus harttii - Moreira (1901); Rathbun (1930), Plataforma (Salvador, Hartt Explorations) and Abrolhos; Coelho Filho & Coelho (1996); Barrete et al. (1993a); Almeida et al. (2007b), Camamu Bay. Panopeus hartii (misspelled) - Joly et al. (1969), Abrolhos.

Description: Melo, 1996: 372.

Remarks: The type locality of P. harttii is Abrolhos Archipelago (Smith, 1869).

92. Panopeus lacustris Desbonne, 1867*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Bermuda, Florida, Antilles, Colombia, and Brazil (from Para to Rio de Janeiro) (Melo, 1996; Barros etal, 1997).

Previous records: Panopeus herbstii granulosus A. Milne-Edwards, 1880 - A. Milne-Edwards (1880a). Panopeus herbstii (sic) H. Milne-Edwards, 1834 -A. Milne-Edwards (1880b). Panopeus crassus A. Milne-Edwards (1880) - A. Milne-Edwards (1880b, 1881). Panopeus herbstii forma erassa - Rathbun (1930), Plataforma (Salvador) and Mapele (Simoes Filho) (Hartt Explorations). Panopeus herbstii forma obesa - Rathbun (1930), Ilhéus. Panopeus herbstii -Joly et al. (1969) and Gomes Corrêa (1972), Abro-lhos. Panopeus lacustris - Williams (1984b); Al-meida et al. (2006, 2007b), Ilhéus and Camamu Bay, respectively.

Description: Melo, 1996: 373.

Remarks: Williams (1984b) divided the P. herbstii complex into six species, one of them P. lacustris. He examined photographs of a syntype of P. crassus from Bahia (A. Milne-Edwards, 1880b, 1881), deposited in the collection of the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, París, concluding that this individual is, in fact, a specimen of P. lacustris. These two species were therefore considered synonyms. Williams (1984b) also attributed to P. lacustris the records of P. herbstii granulosus, P. herbstii, and P. herbstii forma crassa from Bahia (A. Milne-Edwards, 1880a, 1880b; Rathbun, 1930).

93. Panopeus occidentalis de Saussure, 1857*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - east coast of the U.S.A., Central America, Antilles, northem South America, and Brazil (from Pernambuco to Rio Grande do Sul) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Gouvêa (1986b), Salvador and Candeias; Almeida et al. (2006), Ilhéus.

Description: Melo, 1996: 374.

94. Panopeus rugosus H. Milne-Edwards, 1881*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Florida, Gulf of México, Central America, Antilles, northem South America, and Brazil (from Pernambuco to Rio Grande do Sul) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: H. Milne-Edwards (1881); Moreira (1901); Rathbun (1930), Cannavieiras (= Canavieiras) (Thayer Exp., St. 090); Almeida et al. (2006, 2007b), Ilhéus and Camamu Bay, respectively.

Description: Melo, 1996: 375.

Remarks: The type locality of P. rugosus is "Bahia" (A. Milne-Edwards, 1881).

Family Pilumnidae Samouelle, 1819

95. Pilumnus caribaeus Desbonne & Schramm, 1867*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - east coast of the U.S.A., Antilles, northem South America, and Brazil (from Para to Santa Catarina) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Pilumnus braziliensis (sic) Miers, 1886 - Miers (1886), off Salvador (Challenger Exp.). Pilumnus braziliensis - Moreira (1901). Pilumnus caribaeus - Rathbun (1930), Bay of Bahia (= Todos os Santos Bay); Joly et al. (1969) and Gomes Corrêa (1972), Abrolhos; Barreto et al. (1993a); Almeida et al. (2007b), Camamu Bay.

Description: Melo, 1996: 381.

Remarks: The original description of P. braziliensis was based on material collected off Salvador by the Challenger (Miers 1886). Rathbun (1930) included this species among the synonyms of P. caribaeus.

96. Pilumnus dasypodus Kingsley, 1879*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - North Carolina, South Carolina, Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, northem South America, and Brazil (from Paraíba to Santa Catarina) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Rathbun (1930), Bonfim (Salvador, Hartt Explorations); Gouvêa & Leite (1980), Salvador and Itaparica Island; Gouvêa (1986a), Salvador; Barreto et al. (1993a).

Description: Melo, 1996: 382.

97. Pilumnus quoyi Milne-Edwards, 1834

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Guyanas and Brazil (from Amapá to São Paulo) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Barreto et al. (1993a).

Description: Melo, 1996: 385.

98.  Pilumnus reticulatus Stimpson, 1860*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Central America, Antilles, northem South America, Brazil (from Para to Rio Grande do Sul), Uruguay, and Argentina (Buenos Aires and northem Patagonia). Eastem Pacific - from Gulf of California to Gulf of Panamá (Hendrickx, 1995; Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Rathbun (1930), Mapele (Simoes Filho, Hartt Explorations) and Bay of Bahia (= Todos os Santos Bay, material deposited in the Copenhagen Museum); Joly et al. (1969) and Gomes Corrêa (1972), Abrolhos; Gouvêa (1986a), Salvador; Barreto et al. (1993a); Almeida et al. (2007b), Camamu Bay.

Description: Melo, 1996: 386.

99.  Pilumnus spinosissimus Rathbun, 1898

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, and Brazil (from Rio Grande do Norte to Santa Catarina) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Serejo et al. (2006), St. C5-2R and C5-4R (REVIZEE Program, Central Score).

Description: Melo, 1996: 387.

Family Xanthidae MacLeay, 1838

100.   Cataleptodiusfloridanus (Gibbes, 1850)*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Bermuda, Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, Central America, northern South America, and Brazil (Rocas Atoll, Fernando de Noronha, and from Ceará to Rio Grande do Sul). Eastern Atlantic - from Guinea to Gabon (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Chlorodius floridanus (sic) -Smith (1869), Abrolhos. Leptodius floridanus -Rathbun (1898), Abrolhos (Albatross Exp.); Moreira (1901); Rathbun (1930), Bonfim and Plataforma (both in Salvador, Hartt Explorations); Gomes Corrêa (1972), Abrolhos; Gouvêa (1986a), Lauro de Freitas, Salvador, and Itaparica Island; Gouvêa (1986b), Salvador and Itaparica Island.

Description: Melo, 1996: 343.

101.   Edwardsium spinimanus (H. Milne-Edwards, 1834)

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Antilles, Guyanas, and Brazil (from Ceará to Rio Grande do Sul) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Coelho Filho & Coelho (1996).

Description: Melo, 1996: 345.

102.   Glyptoxanthus vermiculatus (Lamarck, 1818)

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Northern South America and Brazil (Bahia and Espirito Santo) (Melo, 1996; Serejo et al., 2006).

Previous records: Serejo et al. (2006), St. C5-16R (REVIZEE Program, Central Score).

Description: Melo, 1996: 355.

103.   Melybia thalamita Stimpson, 1871

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, northern South America, and Brazil (from Amapá to São Paulo) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Melybia fórceps A. Milne-Edwards, 1880 - A. Milne-Edwards (1880a) and A. Milne-Edwards & Bouvier (1923), Abrolhos (Has-sler Exp.). Melybia thalamita - Rathbun (1930), Abrolhos (Hassler Exp.); Barreto et al. (1993a); Serejo et al. (2006), St. C5-2R (REVIZEE Program, Central Score).

Description: Melo, 1996: 361.

Remarks: Rathbun (1930) added M. fórceps (type locality Abrolhos) to the list of synonyms of M. thalamita.

104.  Paractaea nodosa (Stimpson, 1860)

Distribution: Western Atlantic - North Carolina, Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, northern South America, Brazil (from Amapá to Rio de Janeiro), and Uruguay (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Actaea rufopunctata var. nodosa -Miers (1886), off Salvador (Challenger Exp.); Actaea rufopunctata - Moreira (1901); Paractaea rufopunctata nodosa - Barreto et al. (1993a); Coelho Filho & Coelho (1996); Serejo et al. (2006), St. C5-4R, C5-5R, C5-7R, and C5-10R (REVIZEE Program, Central Score).

Description: Melo, 1996: 376. (as P. rufopunctata nodosa).

105.  Platypodiela spectabilis (Herbst, 1794)

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Bermuda, Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, Venezuela, and Brazil (Fernando de Noronha, Trindade Island, and from Rio Grande do Norte to Rio de Janeiro) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Platypodia spectabilis - Gouvêa (1986a), Salvador. Platypodiela spectabilis - Coelho Filho & Coelho (1996); Serejo et al. (2006), St. C5-2R (REVIZEE Program, Central Score).

Description: Melo, 1996: 388.

106. Xanthodius denticulatus (White, 1847)*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Bermuda, Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, Venezuela, and Brazil (Saint Paul's Rocks, and from Ceará to São Paulo). Central Atlantic - Ascensión. Eastern Atlantic -Ghana and some islands of the Gulf of Guinea (Manning & Chace, 1990; Melo, 1996; Alves et al, 2006).

Previous records: Xantho denticulata - Smith (1869), Abrolhos. Cycloxanthops denticulatus -Rathbun (1898), Abrolhos (Albatross Exp.). Xantho-dius denticulatus - Rathbun (1930), Abrolhos (Albatross Exp.); Gomes Corrêa (1972), Abrolhos; Coelho Filho&Coelho(1996).

Description: Melo, 1996: 394.

Superfamily Eriphioidea MacLeay, 1838
Family Eriphiidae MacLeay, 1838

107. Eriphia gonagra (Fabricius, 1781)*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Bermuda, North Carolina, Florida, Gulf of México, Central America, Antilles, northern South America, and Brazil (from Paráto Santa Catarina) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Smith (1869), Abrolhos; Rathbun (1898, 1930), "Bahia" and Abrolhos (Albatross Exp.), Plataforma and Rio Vermelho (both in Salvador), and Abrolhos (Hartt Explorations); Joly et al. (1969) and Gomes Corrêa (1972), Abrolhos; Türkay (1976); Gouvêa (1986a), Lauro de Freitas, Salvador, and Itaparica Island; Bento et al. (2007), Ilhéus.

Description: Melo, 1996: 346.

Family Oziidae Dana, 1851

108. Menippe nodifrons Stimpson, 1859*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - east coast of the U.S.A., Central America, Antilles, northern South America, and Brazil (from Para to Santa Catarina). Eastern Atlantic - from Cape Verde to Angola (Melo, 1996; Barros & Pimentel, 2001).

Previous records: Joly et al. (1969) and Gomes Corrêa (1972), Abrolhos.

Description: Melo, 1996: 362.

Superfamily Goneplacoidea MacLeay, 1838
Family Chasmocarcinidae Serene, 1964

109. Chasmocarcinus arcuatus Coelho Filho & Coelho, 1998*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Brazil (Amapá, Para, Bahia, and Espirito Santo) (Coelho Filho & Coelho, 1998).

Previous records: Coelho Filho & Coelho (1998), Abrolhos (R/V Calypso, St. 1823 and 1826); Almeida et al. (2007b), Camamu Bay.

Description: Coelho Filho & Coelho, 1998: 800, Figs. 1-4.

Remarks: Rodrigues da Costa (1968) described C. peresi from material collected at nine stations of the R/V Calypso around Abrolhos. However, Coelho Filho & Coelho (1998) verified that part of the type material of C. peresi (stations 1823 and 1826) repre-sented, in fact, a second species, described as C. arcuatus.

110. Chasmocarcinus meloi Coelho Filho & Coelho, 1998

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Brazil (from Mara-nhao to Bahia) (Coelho Filho & Coelho, 1998).

Previous records: Coelho Filho & Coelho (1998), Stations CEPEMAR (12°52.4'S, 38°10.6W and 12°53.24'S, 38°15.8W) and Arembepe.

Description: Coelho Filho & Coelho, 1998: 809, Figs. 8-9.

111. Chasmocarcinus peresi Rodrigues da Costa, 1968

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Brazil (from Para to Bahia) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Rodrigues da Costa (1968), Abrolhos (R/V Calypso, Stations 1815-1818, 1822, 1823, 1825-1827); Meloet al. (2003), Abrolhos (R/V Calypso, Stations 1815 and 1816); Young & Serejo (2005), Abrolhos.

Description: Melo, 1996: 421.

Remarks: The type locality of C. peresi is Abrolhos Archipelago (R/V Calypso, St. 1818) (Rodrigues da Costa, 1968) (see remarks on C. arcuatus).

Family Euryplacidae Stimpson, 1871

112. Euryplax nítida Stimpson, 1859*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Bermuda, North Carolina, Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, and Brazil (from Piauí to Santa Catarina) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Gomes Corrêa (1972), Abrolhos; Barrete et al. (1993a); Almeida et al. (2007b), Camamu Bay.

Description: Melo, 1996: 407.

Family Goneplacidae MacLeay, 1838

113. Bathyplax typhla A. Milne-Edwards, 1880

Distribution: Western Atlantic - North Carolina, Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, and Brazil (from Pernambuco to Rio de Janeiro) (Tavares, 1996).

Previous records: Serejo et al. (2006), St. C5-517 (REVIZEE Program, Central Score).

Description: Melo, 1996: 399.

Superfamily Portunoidea Rafinesque, 1815 Family Mathildellidae Karasawa & Kato, 2003

114. Neopilumnoplax americana (Rathbun, 1898)

Distribution: Western Atlantic - North Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Gulf of México, Cuba, and Brazil (Bahia and Espirito Santo) (Melo, 1996; Serejo et al, 2006).

Previous records: Serejo et al. (2006), St. C5-517 (REVIZEE Program, Central Score).

Description: Melo, 1996: 400.

Remarks: The first reference of N. americana from Brazil, as Pilumnoplax americana, was published by Rodrigues da Costa (1968). He analyzed specimens dredged on Abrolhos Bank by the R/V Calypso, at a station located very cióse to Bahia, but still in waters of the state of Espirito Santo. Recently, this crab was collected off the Bahia coast, during the REVIZEE Program, Central Score (Serejo et al, 2006).

Family Macropipidae Stephenson & Campbell, 1960

115. Bathynectes longispina Stimpson, 1871

Distribution: Western Atlantic - from Massachusetts to Florida, Gulf of México, Cuba, and Brazil (from Rio Grande do Norte to Espirito Santo) (Powers, 1977; Tavares, 2003; Torres et al, 2006).

Previous records: Torres et al. (2006), Cruise 3, St. 5 (REVIZEE Program, Northeast Score).

Description: Tavares, 2003: 1, Figs. 1,2.

Family Portunidae Rafinesque, 1815

116. Arenaeus cribrarius (Lamarck, 1818)*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Bermuda, Massachusetts, North Carolina, Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, northern South America, Brazil (from Ceará to Rio Grande do Sul), Uruguay, and Argentina (Melo, 1996; Scelzo,2001).

Previous records: Gouvêa (1986b), Salvador.

Description: Melo, 1996: 311.

117. Callinectes bocourti A. Milne-Edwards, 1879*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - east coast of the U.S.A. (from North Carolina southwards), Antilles, northern South America, and Brazil (from Amapá to Rio Grande do Sul) (Melo, 1996; Santos et al, 2000).

Previous records: Moreira (1901); Rathbun (1930), Cannavierias (sic) (= Canavieiras); Williams (1974), Ilhéus; Almeida et al. (2006, 2007b), Ilhéus and Camamu Bay.

Description: Melo, 1996: 313.

118. Callinectes danae Smith, 1869*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Bermuda, Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, northern South America, and Brazil (from Para to Rio Grande do Sul) (Melo, 1996; Barros etal, 1997).

Previous records: Callinectes danae (sic) - Smith (1869). Charybdis danai (misspelled) - Moreira (1901). Callinectes danae - Rathbun (1930); Williams (1974), Itaparica Island, Madre de Deus, and Ilhéus; Almeida et al. (2006, 2007b), Ilhéus and Camamu Bay; Bento et al. (2007), Ilhéus.

Description: Melo, 1996: 314.

Remarks: Part of the material referred by Rathbun (1930) (Plataforma, Salvador) as C. danae, was con-fused with C. marginatus (= C. larvatus) (see Williams, 1974).

119. Callinectes exasperatus (Gerstaecker, 1856)*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Bermuda, Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, northern South America, and Brazil (from Para to Santa Catarina) (Melo, 1996; Barros etal, 2001).

Previous records: Moreira (1901); Rathbun (1930), Cannavieiras (= Canavieiras) (St. 090) and Porto Seguro (St. 102) (both localities sampled during the Thayer Exp.); Williams (1974), Madre de Deus Island and Ilhéus; Almeida et al. (2006,2007b), Ilhéus and Camamu Bay.

Description: Melo, 1996: 315.

120. Callinectes larvatus Ordway, 1863*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Bermuda, from North Carolina to Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, northern South America, and Brazil (from Para to São Paulo) (Melo, 1996; Barros etal, 1997).

Previous records: Callinectes larvatus - Smith (1869); Almeida et al. (2006, 2007b), Ilhéus and Camamu Bay. Callinectes marginatus A. Milne-Edwards, 1861- Moreira (1901); Rathbun (1930), Porto Seguro (Thayer Exp., St. 102) and Rio Ver-melho (Salvador, Hartt Explorations); Rodrigues da Costa (1968), St. 1831 (R/V Calypso); Williams (1974), Plataforma (Salvador, Hartt Explorations), Madre de Deus Island and Ilhéus; Callinectes danae- Rathbun (1930), material from Plataforma (Salvador) (see Williams, 1974).

Description: Melo, 1996: 316.

121. Callinectes ornatus Ordway, 1863*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - from North Carolina to Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, northern South America, and Brazil (from Amapá to Rio Grande do Sul) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Smith (1869), Caravelas; Gouvêa & Leite (1980), Salvador; Gouvêa (1986b), Salvador; Coelho & Ramos-Porto (1992); Barrete et al. (1993a); Almeida et al. (2006,2007b), Ilhéus (15-20 m) and Camamu Bay, respectively.

Description: Melo, 1996: 317.

122. Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - east coast of the U.S.A., Central America, Antilles, Venezuela, Brazil (from Alagoas to Rio Grande do Sul), and Argentina (Province of Buenos Aires) (occasionaly). East-ern Atlantic - Mediterranean, Adriatic and Black seas. Western Pacific - Japan (Melo, 1996; Calado, 2000).

Previous records: Callinectes sapidus acutidens Rathbun, 1895 - Rathbun (1896, 1930), Santa Cruz (Thayer Exp.). Callinectes sapidus - Almeida et al. (2006), Ilhéus.

Description: Melo, 1996: 318.

Remarks: Rathbun (1896) described the subspecies C. sapidus acutidens, from material collected during the Thayer Expedition in Santa Cruz (= Santa Cruz Cabrália, near Porto Seguro), state of Bahia. This taxon is considered a júnior synonym of C. sapidus (see Williams, 1974).

123. Charybdis hellerii (A. Milne-Edwards, 1867)*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Florida, Cuba, Colombia, Venezuela, French Guyana, and Brazil (from Ceará to Santa Catarina). Eastern Mediterranean -Egypt and Israel. Widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific (Mantelatto & Dias, 1999; Tavares & Amouroux, 2003; Bezerra & Almeida, 2005).

Previous records: Carqueija & Gouvêa (1996), Almeida et al. (2003, 2007b), Camamu Bay; Almeida et al. (2006), Ilhéus.

Description: Carqueija & Gouvêa, 1996: 107, Figs. 2-3.

Remarks: Nonindigenous species of Indo-Pacific origin (Campos & Turkay, 1989; Lemaitre, 1995). C. helerii is a good example of successful introduction of marine species in the Atlantic (Tavares & Amouroux, 2003). This swimmimg-crab was first reported from the Bahia coast by Carqueija & Gouvêa (1996), in Todos os Santos Bay. Later, Almeida et al. (2003) collected a specimen in Camamu Bay. A juvenile specimen was trawled in the Cachoeira River estuary, Ilhéus (Almeida et al, 2006). Almeida et al. (2007b) reported the collection of 16 individuals, at five stations between July 2003 and Setember 2005, also in Camamu Bay. Bezerra & Almeida (2005) summarized previous records of C. hellerii in Brazil.

124. Cronius ruber (Lamarck, 1818)

Distribution: Western Atlantic - North Carolina, Florida, Gulf of México, Central America, Antilles, northern South America, and Brazil (from Amapá to Rio Grande do Sul). Eastern Atlantic - from Senegal to Angola. Eastern Pacific - from Baja California, México, to Perú, including Galápagos and Clipper-ton (Hendrickx, 1995; Melo, 1996).

Previous records: A. Milne-Edwards & Bouvier (1923), "Bahia" (Hassler Exp.); Barrete et al. (1993a).

Description: Melo, 1996: 320.

125. Cronius tumidulus (Stimpson, 1871)*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Bermuda, Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, Guyanas, and Brazil (from Para to São Paulo) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Cronius bispinosus Miers, 1886 -Miers (1886), off Salvador (Challenger Exp.); Moreira (1901). Cronius tumidulus - Rathbun (1930), "Bahia" (Hassler Exp.) and Porto Seguro; Barrete et al. (1993a); Serejo et al. (2006), St. C5-2R, C5-4R, and C5-5R (REVIZEE Program, Central Score); Almeida et al. (2007a, 2007b), Ilhéus coast and Camamu Bay, respectively.

Description: Melo, 1996: 321.

Remarks: C. bispinosus, described from off Salvador by Miers (1886), is a júnior synonym of C. tumidulus (see Rathbun, 1930).

126. Laleonectes vocans (A. Milne-Edwards, 1878)

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Gulf of México, Antilles, and Brazil (Bahia, Espirito Santo, and Rio de Janeiro). Eastern Atlantic - Madeira, Cape Verde, São Tomé and Príncipe, and Annobon. Central At-lantic - Ascensión (Manning & Chace, 1990; Melo, 1996; Serejo et al., 2006).

Previous records: Serejo et al. (2006), St. C5-10R (REVIZEE Program, Central Score).

Description: Melo, 1996: 322.

127. Portunus anceps (de Saussure, 1858)*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Bermuda, North Carolina, Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, and Brazil (from Amapá to Rio de Janeiro). Central Atlantic - Ascensión (Manning & Chace, 1990; Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Neptunus sulcatus A. Milne-Edwards, 1879 - A. Milne-Edwards (1879) and A. Milne-Edwards & Bouvier (1923), "Bahia-3" (Hassler Exp.). Portunus (Portunus) anceps - Rathbun (1930), "Porto da Bahia" (probably Salvador Harbor) and Bahia (Hassler Exp.). Portunus anceps -Barrete et al. (1993a); Almeida et al. (2007a, 2007b), Ilhéus coast (20 m) and Camamu Bay, respectively.

Description: Melo, 1996: 324.

Remarks: A. Milne-Edwards (1879) described N. sulcatus (júnior synonym of P. anceps) based on a specimen obtained off the coast of Bahia during the Hassler Expedition.

128. Portunus ordwayi (Stimpson, 1860)

Distribution: Western Atlantic - from Massachusetts to Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, northern South America, and Brazil (Fernando de Noronha, and from Amapá to Rio Grande do Sul) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Achelous ordwayi (sic) - Smith (1869). Portunus (Achelous) ordwayi - Rathbun (1898, 1930), Abrolhos (Albatross Exp.); Coelho & Ramos (1972); Gomes Corrêa (1972), Abrolhos. Achelous ordwayi - Moreira (1901). Portunus ordwayi - Barrete et al. (1993a); Serejo et al. (2006), St. C5-2R and C5-5R (REVIZEE Program, Central Score).

Description: Melo, 1996: 326.

129. Portunus spinicarpus (Stimpson, 1871)*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - North Carolina, South Carolina, Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, northern South America, and Brazil (from Amapá to Rio Grande do Sul) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Portunus spinicarpus - Rodrigues da Costa (1968), Abrolhos (R/V Calypso, St. 1816, 1817, and 1827); Coelho & Ramos (1972); Coelho & Ramos-Porto (1992); Barrete et al. (1993a); Almeida et al. (2007a), Ilhéus coast (20 m). Portunus (Achelous) spinicarpus - Gomes Corrêa (1972), Abrolhos.

Description: Melo, 1996: 328.

130. Portunus spinimanus Latreille, 1819*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Bermuda, from New Jersey to Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, northern South America, and Brazil (Para, and from Pernambuco to Rio Grande do Sul) (Melo, 1996; Vianaeía/., 2003a).

Previous records: Achelous spinimanus - Smith (1869). Portunus (Achelous) spinimanus - Rathbun (1930), Plataforma (Salvador, Hartt Explorations). Portunus spinimanus - Barrete et al. (1993a); Almeida et al. (2007a, 2007b), Ilhéus coast and Camamu Bay, respectively.

Description: Melo, 1996: 329.

Superfamily Cryptochiroidea Paulson, 1875
Family Cryptochiridae Paulson, 1875

131. Troglocarcinus corallicola Verrill, 1908*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Bermuda, Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, and Brazil (Rocas Atoll, Fernando de Noronha, and from Maranhao to São Paulo). Central Atlantic - Ascensión and Saint Helena. Eastern Atlantic - Gabon, São Tomé and Príncipe, and Annobon (Kropp & Manning, 1987; Melo, 1996; Nogueira, 2003).

Previous records: Utinomi (1944); Coelho (1966); Coelho & Ramos (1972); Barrete et al. (1993a).

Description: Melo, 1996: 511.

Remarks: Kropp & Manning (1987) commented that the records of T. corallicola in agaricid coral hosts in northeast Brazil are doubtful (Coelho, 1966; Coelho & Ramos, 1972). According to them, the species in question may be Opecarcinus hypostegus (Shaw & Hopkins, 1977), another gall crab known from Brazil, commonly found in association with this coral family.

Superfamily Pinnotheroidea de Haan, 1833
Family Pinnotheridae de Haan, 1833

132. Dissodactylus crinitichelis Moreira, 1901*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - North Carolina, Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, northern South America, Brazil (from Para to Rio Grande do Sul), and Argentina (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Dissodactylus crinitichelis -Coelho & Ramos (1972); Gouvêa (1986b), Salvador; Barreto et al. (1993a); Young & Serejo (2005), Ab-rolhos. Dissodactilus crinitichelis (misspelled) -Gouvêa (1986a), Salvador.

Description: Melo, 1996: 436.

133. Holothuriophilus tomentosus (Ortmann, 1894)

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Brazil (Bahia and Santa Catarina) (Melo& Boehs, 2004; Serejo et al., 2006).

Previous records: Pinnaxodes tomentosus - Serejo et al. (2006), St. C5-5R (REVIZEE Program, Central Score).

Description: Melo& Boehs, 2004: 229, Figs. 2-7.

Remarks: The first report of this pea crab since its original description was published by Melo& Boehs (2004), who found this species associated with bi-valve mollusks in Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. These authors also transferred this pinnotherid from the genus Pinnaxodes Heller, 1865 to Holothuriophilus Nauk, 1880. Serejo et al. (2006) extended the range of H. tomentosus to Bahia, based on material sampled during the REVIZEE Program. However, these authors provided no drawings or information on possible hosts for their material.

134. Parapinnixa hendersoni Rathbun, 1918*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, Venezuela, and Brazil (Maranhao, Bahia, Espirito Santo, and Paraná) (Meloet al, 1989; Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Righi (1967), Abrolhos; Barreto et al. (1993a); Almeida et al. (2007b), Camamu Bay.

Description: Melo, 1996: 442.

135.  Pinnixa latissima Coelho, 1997

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Brazil (Pernambuco and Bahia) (Coelho, 1997).

Previous records: Coelho (1997), 12°44'25"S, 38°08'76"W(sic).

Description: Coelho, 1997: 177, Fig. 4.

136.  Pinnixa sayona Stimpson, 1860*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - from Massachusetts to North Carolina, Florida, Gulf of México, and Brazil (from Amapá to Rio Grande do Sul) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Coelho (1997), 12°43'85"S (sic), 38°05'50"W; Almeida et al. (2007b), Camamu Bay.

Description: Melo, 1996: 434.

137.  Tumidotheres maculatus (Say, 1818)

Distribution: Western Atlantic - from Massachusetts to Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, Brazil (from Alagoas to São Paulo), Uruguay, and Argentina (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Pinnotheres maculatus - Gouvêa (1986b), Salvador.

Description: Melo, 1996: 443.

138.  Zaops ostreus (Say, 1817)*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - from Massachusetts to Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, and Brazil (from Ceará to Santa Catarina) (Melo, 1996; Bezerra et al, 2006).

Previous records: Zaops ostreum - Martins & D'Incao (1996), Itaparica Island.

Description: Melo, 1996: 444.

Superfamily Ocypodoidea Rafinesque, 1815
Family Ocypodidae Rafinesque, 1815

139.  Ocypode quadrata (Fabricius, 1787)*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Bermuda, Florida, Gulf of México, Central America, Antilles, northern South America, and Brazil (Fernando de Noronha, and from Para to Rio Grande do Sul) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Ocypoda arenaria Say, 1817 -Miers (1886), Salvador (Challenger Exp., inland); Ocypode arenaria - Rathbun (1898), "Bahia" and Abrolhos (Albatross Exp., inland); Ocypode albicans Bosc, 1801-02 - Rathbun (1918), Itaparica, Mar Grande, and Caravelas (Hartt Explorations), and Abrolhos (Albatross Exp.); Ocypode quadrata -Gomes Corrêa (1972), Abrolhos; Gouvêa (1986a), Lauro de Freitas and Salvador; Gouvêa (1986b), Lauro de Freitas, Salvador, and Itaparica Island; Almeida et al. (2006) and Bento et al. (2007), Ilhéus.

Description: Melo, 1996: 484.

140.  Uca burgersi Holthuis, 1967*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, Venezuela, and Brazil (from Maranhao to São Paulo) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Uca (Minuca) burgersi - Crane (1975), Salvador and Itaparica.

Description: Melo, 1996: 487.

141.  Uca leptodactyla Rathbun, 1898*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, Venezuela, and Brazil (from Ma-ranhao to Santa Catarina) (Melo, 1996; Calado & Sousa, 2003).

Previous records: Rathbun (1918), Plataforma (Salvador, Hartt Explorations) and Porto Seguro (Thayer Exp., St. 102); Coelho & Ramos (1972); Gouvêa (1986b), Lauro de Freitas, Salvador, Candeias, and Ilha de Maré; Coelho (1995); Almeida et al. (2006) and Bento et al. (2007), Ilhéus. Uca (Celuca) leptodactyla - Crane (1975), Salvador, Plataforma (Salvador), Itaparica, and Porto Seguro.

Description: Melo, 1996: 489.

142.  Uca maracoani (Latreille, 1802-03)*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Antilles, northern South America, and Brazil (from Para to Paraná) (Melo, 1996; Barros et al., 1997).

Previous records: Rathbun (1918), Plataforma (Salvador, Hartt Explorations) and Porto Seguro (Thayer Exp., St. 102); Almeida et al. (2006) and Bento et al. (2007), Ilhéus. Uca (Uca) maracoani maracoani -Crane (1975), Salvador, Plataforma (Salvador), Itaparica, and Porto Seguro.

Description: Melo, 1996: 490.

143.  Uca mordax (Smith, 1870)*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Gulf of México, Central America, northern South America, and Brazil (from Para to São Paulo) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Gouvêa (1986b), Salvador and Ilha de Maré; Coelho (1995); Almeida et al. (2006), I-lhéus.

Description: Melo, 1996: 491.

144.  Uca rapax (Smith, 1870)*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, Venezuela, and Brazil (from Para to Santa Catarina) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Uca pugnax rapax - Rathbun (1918), Plataforma (Salvador) and Caravelas (Hartt Explorations). Uca rapax - Almeida et al. (2006), Ilhéus.

Description: Melo, 1996: 492.

145.  Uca thayeri Rathbun, 1900*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, Central America, Venezuela, and

Brazil (from Maranhão to Santa Catarina) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Rathbun (1918), Plataforma (Salvador, Hartt Explorations); Almeida et al. (2006), Ilhéus. Uca (Minuca) rapax - Crane (1975), Salvador and Itaparica.

Description: Melo, 1996: 493.

146.  Uca vocator (Herbst, 1804)*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Gulf of México, Central America, Antilles, northern South America, and Brazil (from Pernambuco to Santa Catarina) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Almeida et al. (2006) and Bento et al. (2007), Ilhéus.

Description: Melo, 1996: 496.

147.  Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus, 1763)*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Florida, Gulf of México, Central America, Antilles, northern South America, and Brazil (from Para to Santa Catarina) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Uca cordata - Smith (1869). Ucides cordatus - Rathbun (1918), Plataforma (Salvador, Hartt Explorations); Almeida et al. (2006) and Bento et al. (2007), Ilhéus.

Description: Melo, 1996: 497.

Family Palicidae Rathbun, 1898

148.  Palicus acutifrons (A. Milne-Edwards, 1880)

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Brazil (Bahia and Espirito Santo) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Cymopolia acutifrons - A. Milne-Edwards (1880b), A. Milne-Edwards & Bouvier (1902) and Rathbun (1918), "Bahia-4" (Hassler Exp.).

Description: Melo, 1996: 501.

Remarks: The type locality of P. acutifrons is the coast of Bahia; the type material was obtained dur-ing the Hassler Expedtion (A. Milne-Edwards, 1880b).

149.  Palicus afflnis A. Milne-Edwards & Bouvier, 1899

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, Guyanas, and Brazil (from Maranhão to Espirito Santo) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Coelho & Ramos (1972); Barrete etal. (1993a).

Description: Melo, 1996: 502.

150.  Palicus alternatus Rathbun, 1897

Distribution: Western Atlantic - North Carolina, Florida, Gulf of México, and Brazil (Bahia, Rio de Janeiro, and Rio Grande do Sul) (Melo, 1996; Serejo eíaZ.,2006).

Previous records: Serejo et al. (2006), St. C5-2R (REVIZEE Program, Central Score).

Description: Melo, 1996: 503.

Superfamily Grapsoidea MacLeay, 1838
Family Gecarcinidae MacLeay, 1838

151.  Cardisoma guanhumi Laireiüe, 1825*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Bermuda, Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, northern South America, and Brazil (from Ceará to São Paulo) (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Almeida et al. (2006) and Bento et al. (2007), Ilhéus.

Description: Melo, 1996: 480.

Family Grapsidae MacLeay, 1838

152.  Goniopsis cruentata (Latreille, 1803)*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Bermuda, Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, Guyanas, and Brazil (Fernando de Noronha, Rocas Atoll, and from Para to Santa Catarina) (Melo, 1996; Targino et al., 2001).

Previous records: Goniopsis cruentatus - Smith (1869) and Moreira (1901), Abrolhos; Goniopsis cruentata - Rathbun (1918), Plataforma (Salvador, Hartt Explorations); Gouvêa (1986b), Candeias, Simoes Filho, and Itaparica Island; Almeida et al. (2006) and Bento et al. (2007), Ilhéus.

Description: Melo, 1996: 449.

153.  Pachygrapsus gracilis (de Saussure, 1858)*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Gulf of México (Texas), Caribbean, French Guyana, Brazil (Trin-dade Island, and from Para to Rio Grande do Sul), and Argentina. Eastern Atlantic - from Senegal to Angola (Melo, 1996; Barros et al., 1997; Poupin et al., 2005).

Previous records: Rathbun (1918), Plataforma (Salvador, Hartt Explorations); Gouvêa (1986b), Salvador, Candeias, Simoes Filho, Ilha de Maré; Almeida etal. (2006), Ilhéus.

Description: Melo, 1996: 453.

154.  Pachygrapsus transversus (Gibbes, 1850)*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Bermuda, from Massachusetts (Cape Cod) to Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, northern South America, Brazil (Trindade Island, and from Ceará to Rio Grande do Sul), and Uruguay. Eastern Atlantic - from southern Portugal to Namibia, including Madeira, Canary Islands, and Cape Verde. Mediterranean - from Alboran Sea to Levantine basin (Melo, 1996; Poupin et al., 2005; Schubart et al., 2005).

Previous records: Rathbun (1898), Abrolhos (Albatross Exp., inland); Moreira (1901); Rathbun (1918), Plataforma (Salvador, Hartt Explorations) and Abrolhos (Albatross Exp., inland); Gouvêa (1986a), Lauro de Freitas, Salvador, and Itaparica Island; Almeida et al. (2006), Ilhéus.

Description: Melo, 1996: 454.

Remarks: Based on morphological and genetic dif-ferences, Schubart et al. (2005) revalidated the species P. socius Stimpson, 1871 for the Eastern Pacific representatives of P. transversus (Hendrickx, 2005; Poupin et al., 2005).

155.  Planes cyaneus Dana, 1851

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Gulf of México, Brazil (Rocas Atoll, Para, and from Rio Grande do Norte to Rio Grande do Sul), Uruguay, and Argentina. Central Atlantic - Saint Helena. Eastern Atlantic - Canary Islands, Morocco, and South África. Eastern Pacific - from California to the Straits of Magellan, including Galápagos. Widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific (Melo, 1996; Prado & Melo, 2002; Yimaetal., 2003a).

Previous records: Prado & Melo(2002), Bom Abrigo (doubtful locality, unknown).

Description: Prado & Melo, 2002: 580, Fig. 1.

Family Plagusiidae Dana, 1851

156.  Plagusia depressa (Fabricius, 1775)

Distribution: Western Atlantic - North Carolina, Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, and Brazil (Saint Paul's Rocks, Rocas Atoll, Fernando de Noronha, Trindade Island, and from Ceará to Bahia). Central Atlantic - Ascensión and Saint Helena. Eastern Atlantic - Azores, Madeira, and from Senegal to Angola (Manning & Chace, 1990; Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Melo(1996).

Description: Melo, 1996: 458.

Family Sesarmidae Dana, 1851

157.  Aratuspisonii (H. Milne-Edwards, 1837)*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Florida, Gulf of México, Antilles, northern South America, and Brazil (from Para to São Paulo). Eastern Pacific - from Nicaragua to Perú (Melo, 1996; Barros et al, 1997).

Previous records: Rathbun (1918), Mapelle, Bay of Bahia (= Mapele, Todos os Santos Bay, Hartt Expl-rations); Almeida et al. (2006), Ilhéus.

Description: Melo, 1996: 460.

158.  Armases angustipes (Dana, 1852)*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - México, Antilles, and Brazil (from Para to Santa Catarina) (Melo, 1996; Barros et al, 1997).

Previous records: Sesarma (Holometopus) miersii iheringi Rathbun, 1918 - Rathbun (1918). Sesarma (Holometopus) ricordi H. Milne-Edwards, 1853 -Rathbun (1918), Itaparica Island and Salvador. Sesarma (Holometopus) angustipes - Abele (1972a, 1972b), Itaparica Island and Salvador; Coelho & Ramos-Porto (1981), Paripé (Salvador); Sesarma (Homoletopus) miersii Rathbun, 1897 - Coelho & Ramos (1972). Armases angustipes - Abele (1992), Itaparica Island and Salvador; Almeida et al. (2006), Ilhéus.

Description: Melo, 1996: 462.

Remarks: The type locality of the subspecies Sesarma (Holometopus) miersii iheringi is "Bahia" (Rathbun 1918). Abele (1972a), when establishing this taxon as a júnior synonym of S. (Holometopus) angustipes, mentioned Salvador as the site of collection of the holotype analyzed by Rathbun (1918). The Brazilian material cited by Rathbun as Sesarma (Holometopus) ricordi, was also attributed to S. (Holometopus) angustipes (Abele, 1972a, 1992).

159.  Armases rubripes (Rathbun, 1897)*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Central America, northern South America, Brazil (from Ceará to Rio Grande do Sul), Uruguay, and Argentina (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Sesarma mülleri A. Milne-Edwards, 1869 - Miers (1886), Salvador (Challenger Exp., inland). Sesarma (Holometopus) rubripes - Rathbun (1897). Sesarma rubripes - Moreira (1901). Metasesarma rubripes - Abele (1972a). Armases rubripes - Almeida et al. (2006), Ilhéus.

Description: Melo, 1996: 466 (as M rubripes).

Remarks: Rathbun (1897) proposed S. rubripes as a new ñame for the specimen collected by the Challenger Expedition inland, in Bahia (= Salvador), erroneously referred to by Miers (1886) as S. mülleri. Thus, the type locality of A. rubripes is Salvador (see Abele, 1972a).

160.   Sesarma curacaoense De Man, 1892*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Florida, Antilles, Panamá, and Brazil (to Bahia) (Abele, 1992).

Previous records: Rathbun (1918) and Abele (1992), Mapelle, Bay of Bahia (= Mapele, Todos os Santos Bay, Hartt Explorations); Almeida et al. (2006), Ilhéus.

Description: Abele, 1992: 12, Figs. 3a, 5c, 8.

Remarks: Rathbun (1918) and Abele (1992) referred to Bahia as the southern limit of the range of this crab on the South American coast; both authors studied specimens collected between 1876 and 1877 from the locality of Mapele, municipality of Simoes Filho, around Todos os Santos Bay. Almeida et al. (2006) cited S. curacaoense for Ilhéus (15°04'58.6"S; 38°59'53.4"W). We now report the collection of individuals in Mucuri (18°05'38'S) (lot MZUESC 808), southern state of Bahia, near the border of the state of Espirito Santo. This is the southermost known record for the species. The few reports of S. curacaoense in Brazil are possibly due to confusión with S. crassipes Cano, 1889, as pointed out by Abele (1992). According to him, the status of S. curacaoense and S. crassipes in Brazil requires a review.

161.   Sesarma rectum Randall, 1840*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Antilles (Granada), Venezuela, Guyanas, and Brazil (from Amapá to Santa Catarina) (Melo, 1996; Schubarteía/., 1999).

Previous records: Sesarma (Holometopus) rectum -Rathbun (1918), Mapelle, Bay of Bahia (= Mapele, Todos os Santos Bay) and Caravelas (Hartt Explorations); Sesarma rectum - Abele (1992), Mapele (Simoes Filho, not Salvador) and Caravelas (Hartt Explorations); Almeida et al. (2006) and Bento et al. (2007), Ilhéus.

Description: Melo, 1996: 469.

Family Varunidae Milne-Edwards, 1853

162.   Cyclograpsus integerü. Milne-Edwards, 1837*

Distribution: Western Atlantic - Florida, Gulf of México, Central America, northern South America, and Brazil (from Ceará to Santa Catarina). Eastern Atlantic - from Cape Verde to Senegal. Indo-Pacific (Melo, 1996).

Previous records: Almeida et al. (2006), Ilhéus.

Description: Melo, 1996: 465.

DISCUSSION

Doubtful records

Epialtus brasiliensis Dana, 1852 has been cited from the Abrolhos Archipelago and Salvador (Joly et al, 1969; Gomes Corrêa, 1972; Gouvêa, 1986a). However, the species has an apparently disjointed geo-graphical distribution, with a northern group occuring in Colombia and a southern group in southeast Brazil, from Espirito Santo to São Paulo (Melo, 1996), which makes the records from Bahia doubtful. A similar case is Eurypanopeus depressus (Smith, 1869), recorded from Salvador and adjacent areas (Gouvêa & Leite, 1980; Gouvêa, 1986a). This species, with no other records from Brazil, has a similar distribution, occurring in the north at Bermuda and from Massachusetts Bay to the Dutch West Indies, and in the south off Uruguay and Argentina (Williams, 1984a; Spivak & Luppi, 2005).

Portunus gibbesü (Stimpson, 1859) was initially reported for Salvador by Gouvêa (1986b), and then for Bahia by Melo(1996). These reports indicate the east coast of this state as the southern distributional limit of the species in the western Atlantic. In a recent study on the portunids of Brazil (Santos, 2007), the record for Bahia was not confirmed. The single valid record of P. gibbesii in Brazil is that of Coelho & Ramos-Porto (1992) for Maranhao (material deposited in the Carcinological Collection of the Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil) (C.R. Santos, pers. comm.). Thus, as described above, and because the material of Gouvêa (1986b) is not deposited in any collection where its identification can be confirmed, this species was excluded from the present list. Another doubtful citation not included on this list is the portunid Callinectes arcuatus Ordway, 1863 (Gouvêa, 1987), a species of the eastern Pacific (Williams, 1974); this was possibly confused with some variation of C. danae. Gouvêa (1987) did not mention where the material was deposited. Furthermore, the published drawings provide insufficient detail to permit confirmation of this record.

A series of other doubtful records were published by Gouvêa & Leite (1980) and Gouvêa (1986a, 1986b). Confirmation of these records is impossible for the same reasons mentioned in the previous paragraph. Pilumnus gonzalensis Rathbun, 1893, Cycloxanthops novemdentatus (Lockington, 1876), and C. vittatus (Stimpson, 1860) are eastern Pacific species (Hendrickx, 1995), and there are no other records for Brazil. The western Atlantic species Pelia mutica (Gibbes, 1850), Pitho aculeata (Gibbes, 1850), Epialtus dilatatus A. Milne-Edwards, 1878, Neopanope texana (Stimpson, 1859), Pilumnus marshi Rathbun, 1901, and Pilumnus sayi Rathbun, 1897 also have not been recorded else-where for Brazil. Parapinnixa bouvieri Rathbun, 1918 is known from North Carolina to Amapá and off São Paulo (Melo, 1996; Nucci & Melo, 1999). Uca uruguayensis Nobili, 1901 is probably an erro-neous identification because this is a cold-water species that ranges from Rio de Janeiro to Argentina (Melo, 1990, 1996). In the same publication, Ocypode albicans was cited but, in fact, is a júnior syno-nym of the also-cited O. quadrata (see Chace & Hobbs, 1969).

Zoogeography

The analysis of the current distribution of the 162 species known for Bahia based on Melo's proposal (1985) allows their classification in four patterns of longitudinal distribution:

1)  Circum-tropical species, which occur in tropical regions of the Atlantic, eastern Pacific, and Indo-Pacific: Elamena gordonae, Cronius ruber, Pachy-grapsus transversus, Planes cyaneus, and Cyclo-grapsus integer. The occurrence of E. gordonae in the western Atlantic suggests a circum-tropical distribution, which is uncommon among hymenosomatids because of their brief larval development and low fecundity (Lucas, 1980; Almeida et al, 2007b) (Fig. 3).


2) Amphi-American species, which occur in both the western Atlantic and eastern Pacific: Pilumnus reticulatus and Aratus pisonii.
3)  Amphi-Atlantic species, which are found in both the western and eastern Atlantic: Calappa galloides, Cataleptodius floridanus, Xanthodius denticulatus, Menippe nodifrons, Laleonectes vocans, Troglocarcinus corallicola, Goniopsis cruentata, Pachygrapsus gracilis, and Plagusia depressa.
4)   Western Atlantic species, including a total of 145 species, of which 17 are endemic to Brazilian waters: Dromia gouveai, Lithadia brasiliensis, L. vertiginosa, Acanthonyx dissimulatus, Ericerodes-minusculus, Podochela brasiliensis, Batrachonotus brasiliensis, Mithrax braziliensis, Microlissa brasiliensis, Trichopeltarion pezzutoi, Pilumnoides coelhoi, Chasmocarcinus arcuatus, C. meloi, C. peresi, Holothuriophilus tomentosus, Pinnixa latissima, and Palicus acutifrons. Of these, the bathyal T. pezzutoi and the coastal species P. coelhoi, D. gouveai, and H. tomentosus (Melo, 1996; Melo& Campos Jr., 1999; Melo& Boehs, 2004; Tavares & Melo, 2005; Serejo et al., 2006) are species that are possibly common to the Brazilian and Paulista zoogeographic provinces, whereas C. peresi is common to the Brazilian and Guyanas provinces. The remaining 12 species occur in the Brazilian province, although L. brasiliensis, L. vertiginosa, B. brasiliensis, and C. arcuatus extend their northern ranges to the Guyanas province, and B. brasiliensis and M. brasiliensis reach the coast of São Paulo within the Paulista province.

Among the western Atlantic species, C. sapidus shows a modern disjointed distribution - a northern group occurs from the east coast of the U.S.A. to Venezuela and a southern group occurs from north-eastern Brazil to Argentina (Williams, 1974; Melo, 1996; Calado, 2000; Santos & D'Incao, 2004). Pos-sible causes of the disjointed distribution of the blue crab in the western Atlantic were discussed by Santos & D'Incao (2004). Its introduction in other parts of the world is probably a result of transport in the ballast water of ships (Williams, 1974; Santos & D'Incao, 2004).

The remaining species from the Bahia coast (Carqueija & Gouvêa, 1996; Almeida et al, 2003, 2006, 2007b), also transponed to the western Atlantic by means of ballast water, is the Indo-Pacific portunid Charybdis hellerii (Campos & Türkay, 1989; Lemaitre, 1995; Tavares & Amouroux, 2003).

Dromia erythropus, Moreiradromia antillensis, Mithraculus fórceps, Domecia acanthophora, Panopeus harttii, and Portunus anceps are western Atlantic species that extend their range to the central Atlantic (Holthuis et al., 1980; Manning & Chace, 1990; Melo, 1996).

The Brazilian coast has been divided by several authors into zoogeographic provinces (e.g. Dana, 1853; Ekman, 1953; Balech, 1954; Coelho & Ramos, 1972; Briggs, 1974; Coelho et al., 1978; Coelho & Santos, 1980; Palacio, 1982; Boschi, 2000a, 2000b). On the eastern coast, there is a consensus on the existence of a boundary región be-tween a tropical (Brazilian) and a subtropical province, recognized as an area of hydrological and faunistic transition (named Paulista province in the present contribution). However, the ñames of these areas and the limits proposed for them have histor-cally varied according to the author and group studied. Figure 4 shows the southernmost distribution limits in the western Atlantic of the brachyuran species reported in the present work. For a significant number (28.4%), the known meridional limit is between the southeast/south coast of Bahia and Rio de Janeiro. A second species group (22.8%) is distrib-uted southward as far as São Paulo. The northern limit of these species is North Carolina, a similar transition area between the températe cold water provinces north of Cape Hatteras and the warm waters south of this cape (Cerame-Vivas & Gray, 1966; Vemberg & Vemberg, 1970). Up to nearly half (48.8%) of the other species have distributions extending in the south to latitudes between Paraná and Argentina. The area located between Rio de Janeiro and Rio Grande do Sul, which corresponds to the Paulista province (Palacio, 1982), is influenced by the Brazil Current and the cold waters of the Malvinas Current. Besides, several water masses occur over the continental shelf, which is still influenced by the discharges from Río de la Plata and the subtropical convergence (Melo, 1990; Melo-Filho, 2006). The very cold waters in this province act as an ecological barrier limiting the distributions of many tropical species.


The data presented here suggest that the area from southeast/south of Bahia to Rio de Janeiro conforms a transition area between the Brazilian and Paulista provinces for the studied species. Other authors have proposed less spacious transition areas between the two provinces, generally not including sponding to Rio de Janeiro and the north coast of São Paulo. Similar results were obtained by Torres (1988) when studying the current distribution of the superfamily Majoidea on the Atlantic coast of South America. These studies show that the number of species decreases considerably in the Paulista province, in relation to the amount observed in the Brazilian province. Palacio (1982) argües against the persistent belief that Cabo Frió, on the coast of Rio de Janeiro, constitutes a limit for tropical organisms (see Briggs, 1974; Boschi, 2000a, 2000b), proposing that the northern limit of the Paulista province occurs between Espirito Santo and Rio de Janeiro far off the 23°C isotherm. Coelho & Koening (1972), analyzing the distribution of stomatopods, isopods, and tanaidaceans off north and northeast Brazil, suggest that the area south of Bahia may also be considered to be a transition area between the Brazilian and Subtropical Brazilian (= Paulista) provinces; these results are the most similar to those observed in the present contribution.

The distributional limits of a species are deter-mined by the environmental action during all stages of its Ufe history. At any place, when a certain environmental factor fluctuates more than another, it may constitute a limiting factor for distribution (Vernberg & Vernberg, 1970). If the Bahia coast represents part of a transition area among provinces, what ecological factors could be limiting the meridional progression of the species on this part of Brazilian coast?

Table 2 groups the information concerning latitudinal distribution limits and ecological preferences of brachyuran species with their southernmost distribution limits in the western Atlantic on the Bahia coast. In terms of latitudinal distributions, the group consists basically of tropical species, such that lower temperatures would represent a limiting factor on distribution. In relation to their bathymetric distributions, coastal, eurybathyal, and bathyal species (H. monstrosa and A. bispinosus, which certainly pos-sess a wider geographic distribution than previously documented in the literatee) are represented. Concerning the type of bottom and substrate, certain species are found preferably over calcareous algae bottoms, other on soft bottoms with a predominance of sand or mud, and some are eurytopic. Sesarma curaçãoense inhabits mangroves and estuarine areas and Plagusia depressa typically occurs over hard substrates in the intertidal zone. Very little data is available in the literatee on Elamena gordonae and Pinnixa latissima. Therefore, species for which Bahia is a meridional limit have extremely variable depth and bottom type preferences, and it is not possible to establish any pattern of ecological distribution.

In the case of species that occur over calcareous algae bottoms, the deepening and regression of this kind of bottom south of Abrolhos (Kempf, 1970, 1971) certainly act as thermal and edafic barrier for this species group, limiting its distribution. Bottoms of this type of algae off Cabo Frió, for example, occur in great patches surrounded by mud and sand up to about 165 m (Otmann & Otmann, 1969). These greater depths, with colder waters, represent a ther mal barrier for the survival of species adapted to the calcareous algae bottoms. Rodrigues da Costa (1968), studying the brachyura fauna off the east coast of Brazil obtained by the R/V Calypso, observed two areas of faunistic change: one between Abrolhos and Cabo Frió and the other between São Paulo and Santa Catarina. It was also verified that the first limit to the southward progression of tropical species is edafic due to the increased amount of muddy substrate on the ocean floor. Coelho et al. (1978) established a correlation between the south limit of the Brazilian province and the changes in the ñatee of the continental shelf bottoms, especially concerning the occurrence of biogenic bottoms.

Another factor that could influence the gradual disappearance of brachyuran species on the coast between southeast/south Bahia and Rio de Janeiro but that was not considered in previous local faunal distribution studies is the belt formed by relatively extensive drainage basins located along this part of the Brazilian coast, such as those of the rivers Jequitinhonha, Pardo, Doce, and Paraíba do Sul (Figure 5).


These basins are located in areas of high average altitudes and precipitation (Dominguez, 2006; Dominguez et al., 2006). The average annual precipitation in the coastal area off Abrolhos is, for example, about 1750 m (Leão, 2002). The bottom of Abrolhos Bank is rich in siliciclastic sediments, with part of this component of fluvial origin being trans-ported by oceanic currents in the area. Sediments brought by greater rivers located more than 200 km north of the Abrolhos reef reach the area periodically due to increased seasonal precipitation (Leão, 2006). Dominguez et al. (2006) commented on the great load of sediments from the Jequitinhonha River, especially in the summer months, as a result of the advection of cold fronts that reach the interior of the continent, causing rains. These factors suggest that the volume of continental water discharged by these rivers is more significant than can be imagined, especially in the rainy season. This fresh-water discharge may act as a limiting factor on the distribution of esthenohaline species.

Final considerations

The marine and estuarine brachyuran fauna from Bahia currently consists of 162 species distributed in 39 families and 19 superfamilies. Of all the species listed in the present contribution, 96 (59.2%) are represented in the MZUESC Crustacean Collection, which brings together a significant portion of the regional biodiversity of this important group of Crustácea. Recent inventory projects in Bahia's coastal areas and continental shelf and slope contributed significantly to increasing the number of species for the state's coastline. Seventeen species were recorded for the first time during the samplings of the REVIZEE Program (Northeast and Central scores) (Torres et al, 2002; Ramos-Porto et al, 2002; Viana et al, 2002, 2003a; Rodrigues & Young, 2003; Tavares & Young, 2004; Torres et al, 2006; Serejo et al., 2006). Inventories done on crustacean fauna in coastal areas of central, southeastern, and southern Bahia broadened knowledge on the geographic distribution of the brachyurans Iliacan-tha liodactylus, Macrocoeloma concavum, M. laevigatum, M. septemspinosum, Elamena gordonae, and Sesarma curaçãoense beyond the first record of 10 species for the state (Almeida et al, 2006, 2007a, 2007b). Here, the knowledge on the distribution of E. gordonae and S. curacaoense is increased again. In spite of the sampling efforts reported herein, the fauna of the Bahia coast is still poorly known. Off the coast of São Paulo, for example, 193 Brachyura species are known (Dall'Occo et al, 2004), whereas, for Pernambuco, with less than 200 km coast, a total of 148 species have been recorded to date (Coelho et al, 2002). In other words, almost the same number of species is known for the latter area as for Bahia, with more than 1,100 km of coastline. The crustacean fauna in the states of São Paulo and Pernambuco is quite well-known when compared to that of Bahia. In fact, some coastal areas of Bahia are still unexplored and present great potential for discovery, including new species for science.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

To the Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, for financial support for the present contribution. To Dr. Marilena Ramos-Porto, Dr. Maria Elisabeth Araújo, and Dr. Deusinete de Oliveira Tenorio, for criticisms that improved an early draft of the manuscript. To Dr. Janet W. Reid and Dr. Erich Rudolph, for assistance with the English and Spanish texts, respectively. To Dr. Cléverson R. Santos and Dr. Cristiana Serejo, for information on portunid doubtful records and on REVIZEE Program stations, respectively. To PhD student Luis Ernesto Bezerra, for his usual support. P.A. Coelho thanks FAPEAL/CNPq for a DCR (Desenvolvimento Científico Regional) scholarship.

 

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Received: 30 January 2008; Accepted: 24 Jun 2008

 

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