SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.44 número4Análisis de las unidades repetidas compuestas en el ORF94 del virus del síndrome de la mancha blanca, aislado de Litopenaeus vannamei en granjas camaroneras con brotes y sin brotes en Sonora, MéxicoGenotipificarión y relación hospedador-específica del virus de la necrosis pancreática infecciosa en Chile índice de autoresíndice de materiabúsqueda de artículos
Home Pagelista alfabética de revistas  

Servicios Personalizados




Links relacionados

  • En proceso de indezaciónCitado por Google
  • No hay articulos similaresSimilares en SciELO
  • En proceso de indezaciónSimilares en Google


Latin american journal of aquatic research

versión On-line ISSN 0718-560X

Lat. Am. J. Aquat. Res. vol.44 no.4 Valparaíso set. 2016 

Short Communication


New records and biological data of Lolliguncula (Lolliguncula) argus Brakoniecki & Roper, 1985 (Myopsida: Loliginidae) in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico

Nuevos registros y datos biológicos de Lolliguncula (Lolliguncula) argus Brakoniecki & Roper, 1985 (Myopsida: Loliginidae) en el Golfo de Tehuantepec, México


María del Carmen Alejo-Plata1, Brian Urbano-Alonso2 & Ilse Aniset Ramírez-Castelán3

1 Universidad del Mar, Campus Puerto Ángel, Puerto Ángel, Oaxaca, México
Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, D.F., México
Programa de Biología Marina, Universidad del Mar, Campus Puerto Ángel Puerto Ángel, Oaxaca, México
Corresponding author: Carmen Alejo-Plata (
Corresponding editor: Claudia Bremec

ABSTRACT. The squid Lolliguncula (Lolliguncula) argus is a rare species, endemic to the Eastern Tropical Pacific Ocean, by their morphological characteristics could be easily confused with other species of the family Lolliguinidae. The distribution and meristic measures remains unclear in spite of recent work in the north part of the distribution. Eleven males and 28 females collected in artisanal fisheries and in the shrimp fishery of the Gulf of Tehuantepec were examined. These records expand species geographic distribution in the southern Mexican Pacific and morphometric and biological data are presented.

Keywords: Lolliguncula (Lolliguncula) argus, squid, lolliginids, spermatophore, Oaxaca.

RESUMEN. El calamar Lolliguncula (Lolliguncula) argus es una especie rara, endémica del Pacífico Oriental Tropical, que por sus características morfológicas podría confundirse fácilmente con otras especies de la familia Loliginidae. La distribución y datos morfométricos aún no son claros a pesar de recientes trabajos realizados en el sector norte de su distribución. Se examinan 11 machos y 28 hembras de L. argus, recolectados de la pesca artesanal y en la pesquería del camarón en el Golfo de Tehuantepec. Estos registros amplían su distribución geográfica a la región sur del Pacífico mexicano y se presentan datos morfométricos y biológicos de esta especie.

Palabras clave: Lolliguncula (Lolliguncula) argus, calamares, loligínidos, espermatóforo, Oaxaca.


Squids from the Loliginidae family are an economically important group of neritic squids. The squids of genus Lolliguncula are an American species. They are small in size and occur in warm waters, shallow coastal waters and are the only cephalopods found brackish water (Vecchione et al., 2005). The geographic distribution of the genus is centered in Panamá region, as most species are limited to tropical and subtropical waters off both North and South American shores. One species, L. brevis, is found on the Atlantic side of the Americas and the Caribbean whereas three species L. panamensis, L. diomedeae, and L. argus occur in the Pacific Ocean (Jereb et al., 2010). Presently the phylogenetic taxonomy of the Loliginidae is very confusing, resulting in a number of taxonomic problems that need to be critically resolved (Cardoso & Hochberg, 2013) and complicate proper elaboration of the fisheries records. In this direction, Sales et al. (2014) established the phylogenetic positions of each species within the genus, except for L. argus, for which no sequences exist, for not having tissues available.

Lolliguncula argus is a rare species, endemic to the Eastern Pacific Ocean. A coastal species, depths range from 0-70 m; the biology and ecology of this species are unknown (Roper et al., 1995). In this study new records of L. argus are reported from Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico, and some aspects of their reproduction are described Lolliguncula argus has been recorded from off the west coast of Baja California Sur and Gulf of California (Granados-Amores et al., 2013), La Plata Island, Ecuador (Brakoniecki, 1986) and Peru (Cardoso & Hochberg, 2013). The present records is based on 13 females and 11 males collected as by-catch in fished artisanal in March 2014 front Puerto Angel Bahia, Oaxaca (15°39.91'N, 96°29.45'W), and 15 females captured incidentally in shrimp fisheries in 2006 off Chipehua Bay (16°10'N, 95°21'W), in the Gulf of Tehuantepec (Fig. 1).


Figure 1. The location of sampling points off the Pacific coasts of Mexico and in the Gulf
of California. (●) Present study; () Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History (SBMNH);
() Los Angeles County Natural History Museum (LACNHM); (*) Scripps Institute of
Oceanography SIOPIC-B; () Granados-Amores et al. (2014).


Specimens were identified according to Brakoniecki & Roper (1985). The measurements (mm) were taken from each individual using caliper (0.01 mm nearest). Measurements and indices used in the work are as defined by Roper & Voss (1983): mantle length (ML); mantle width index (MWI); fin length index (FLI); fin width index (FWI); index arm I length (AILI); index arm II length (AILII); index arm III length (AILIII); index arm IV length (AILIV) and hectocotylized arm length index (HcLI) (Table 1). Hard structures were observed: beak, radula and gladius. Spermatophores and spermantangias were cleared with trypsin and then transferred to glycerol (Vecchione, 1991).


Table 1. Measurements and indices of bodily proportions of
(Lolliguncula) argus. ML: mantle length, MWI:
mantle width index, FLI: fin length index, FWI: fin width index,
AILI: index arm I length, AILII: index arm II length, AILIII:
index arm III length, AILIV: index arm IV length, and HcLI:
hectocotylized arm length index.


In addition, specimens from Oaxaca were compared with the type specimens of L. argus housed in the Los Angeles County Natural History Museum (LACNHM); California Academy Sciences (CAS), Scripps Institute of Oceanography; Pelagic Collection (SIOPIC-B). Voucher specimens of identified organisms were selected and deposited in the Collection of the Cephalopods at Universidad del Mar (CEPHA-0143), located at Puerto Angel, Oaxaca, Mexico.

Lolliguncula argus is characterized by mantle short, bluntly pointed posteriorly; fins small, nearly elliptical in outline; length about 25% of mantle length; tentacles short, compressed; buccal suckers absent; arm suckers with about five blunt teeth on distal margin of sucker rings; distinct manus and dactylus present but carpus absent (Brakoniecki & Roper, 1985). The morphological and biometrical features of the specimens collected in Gulf of Tehuantepec correspond to those of L. argus (Table 1, Fig. 2).


Figure 2. Lolliguncula (Lolliguncula) argus. a) Male (38 mm ML),
ventral view, b) dorsal view, c) hectocotylus, d) tentacular club;
e) Female (52.4 mm ML), ventral view, f) dorsal view, g) sucker
from right arm III, h) upper beak, i) lower beak, j) radula,
k) funnel valve.


The analyzed specimens are 11 males in juvenile stage and mature with sizes from 26 to 38.7 mm ML; 28 are females mature (16 mated), with sizes from 28.5 to 78.4 ML. Mated females had spermatangia inserted in the muscles of the inner mantle at the basis of the left gill in the vicinity of the oviduct aperture (Fig. 3a). Spermatophores were long and thin. The cement body was long and slender, occupying approximately 1/3 of the spermatophores total length (Fig. 3c). Mature males of L. argus have smaller sizes than females such as it has been observed in other lolliginids species (see Jackson, 2004; Arizmendi-Rodriguez et al., 2012). Most of the stomachs were empty and those that contained food, presented highly digested prey items. Only three squid males contained identifiable prey items that were identified as sardine, Harengula thrissina. This study presents new records of maximum ML of 78.4 mm for females, respect to that 60.8 mm ML reported by Granados-Amores et al. (2013).


Figure 3. Lolliguncula (Lolliguncula) argus. a-b)
Spermatangias inserted in the inner mantle wall
of a female, c) spermatangia, d) spermatophore.


In Mexico, loliginids are commonly fished artisanally and also caught as bycatch in trawl fisheries for shrimp (Hernández-Vázquez, 1987; Alejo-Plata et al., 2001) and commercialized locally. In most cases loliginids that appear in trawls are not identified to species level, due to existing taxonomic confusion, which prevents any reliable distribution patterns. Lack of previous records of L. argus in Mexico can be an answer for the existing similarity within species from Loliginidae family with distribution in Tropical Eastern Pacific (Granados et al., 2013).

Although the Gulf of Tehuantepec may fall within the known distribution range of the other species of Loliginidae, L. panamensis and L. diomedeae (Alejo-Plata et al., 2001; Alejo-Plata, 2002), L. argus is considered distinct from this species. L. argus is characterized by its small size at maturity, and it is the only known myopsid to have its primary hectocotilization on the right ventral arm (Brakonieki & Roper, 1985). Both ventral arms in male L. diomedeae are modified, the hectocotylus is modified along the entire arm; L. panamensis has hectocotylized the left ventral arm. The hectocotylus is a valuable taxonomic character that can be used to separate species (Brakoniecki, 1986). The funnel valve of L. argus observed was narrow with a pair of folds on its lateral sections that ended at the patches level, different from other lolliginids (see Granados-Amores et al., 2014). Analyzed squids included juvenile males and mature stages; as well as mature and mated females. This indicates that the Gulf of Tehuantepec is a reproduction area of L. argus.


To the Programa del Posgrado en Ciencias Biológicas from the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México for the financial support to visit the USA collectios. A special mention to the curators Paul Valentich-Scott, Mark Ohman, Terry Gosliner and curator assistants: Harim Cha, Lindesy Sala and Elizabet Kools for all their help and patience.



Alejo-Plata, M.C. 2002. Sistemática de los calamares de importancia comercial del golfo de California y Pacífico Central Oriental. Tesis de Maestría, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, 146 pp.         [ Links ]

Alejo-Plata, M.C., G. Cerdenares-Ladrón De Guevara & J.E. Herrera-Galindo. 2001. Cefalópodos loligínidos en la fauna de acompañamiento del camarón. Cienc. Mar, 5: 41-46.         [ Links ]

Arizmendi-Rodríguez, D.I., C. Rodríguez-Jaramillo, C. Quiñónez-Velázquez & C.A. Salinas-Zavala. 2012. Reproductive indicators and gonad development of the Panama Brief squid Lolliguncula panamensis (Berry, 1911) in the Gulf of California, Mexico. J. Shellfish Res., 31(3): 817-826.         [ Links ]

Brakoniecki, T.F. & C.F.E. Roper. 1985. Lolliguncula argus, a new species of loliginid squid (Cephalopoda: Myopsida) from the tropical eastern Pacific. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 98(1): 47-53.         [ Links ]

Brakoniecki, T.F. 1986. A generic revision of the family Loliginidae (Cephalopoda: Myopsida) based primarily on the comparative morphology of the hectocotylus. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Miami, Miami, 163 pp.         [ Links ]

Cardoso, F. & F.G. Hochberg. 2013. Revision of the genus Lolliguncula Streenstrup, 1881 (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae) off the Pacific coast of South America. Rev. Peru. Biol., 20(2): 129-136.         [ Links ]

Granados-Amores, J., F. Hochberg & C. Salinas-Zavala. 2013. New record of Lolliguncula (Lolliguncula) argus Brakoniecki & Roper, 1985 (Myopsida: Loliginidae) in northwestern Mexico. Lat. Am. J. Aquat. Res., 4(3): 595-599.         [ Links ]

Grandados-Amores, J., F. García-Rodríguez, F.G Hochberg & C. Salina-Zavala. 2014. The taxonomy and morphometry of squids in the family Loliginidae (Cephalopoda: Myopsida) from the Pacific coast of Mexico. Am. Malacol. Bull., 32(2): 198-208.         [ Links ]

Hernández-Vázquez, S. 1987. Pesquerías pelágicas y neríticas de la costa occidental de Baja California, México. CalCOFI Rep., 38: 53-56.         [ Links ]

Jackson, G.D. 2004. Advances in defining the life history of myopsid squids. J. Mar. Res., 55: 357-365.         [ Links ]

Jereb, P., M. Vecchione & C.F.E. Roper. 2010. Family Loliginidae. In: P. Jereb & C.F.E. Roper (eds.). Cephalopods of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of species known to date, myopsid and oegopsid squids. FAO Species Catalog for Fishery Purposes, Rome, 4(2): 38-117.         [ Links ]

Roper, C.F.E. & G.L. Voss. 1983. Guidelines for taxonomic descriptions of cephalopod species. Mem. Nat. Mus. Victoria, 44: 49-63.         [ Links ]

Roper, C.F.E., M.J. Sweeney & F.G. Hochberg. 1995. Cefalópodos. In: W. Fisher, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter & V.H. Niem (eds.). Guía FAO para la identificación de especies para los fines de la pesca. Pacífico centro-oriental. I. Plantas e invertebrados. FAO, Roma, 1: 305-353.         [ Links ]

Sales, J.B.L., U. Markaida, P.W. Shaw, M. Haimovici & J.S. Ready. 2014. Molecular phylogeny of the Genus Lolliguncula Steenstrup, 1881 based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences indicates genetic isolation of populations from North and South Atlantic, and the possible presence of further cryptic species. PLoS ONE, 9(2): e88693. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088693.         [ Links ]

Vecchione, M. 1991. A method for examining the structure and contents of the digestive tract in paralarval squids. Bull. Mar. Sci., 49: 300-308.         [ Links ]

Vecchione, M., E. Shea, S. Bussarawit, F.E. Anderson, D. Alexeyev, C.C. Lu, T. Okutani, M. Roseleveld, C. Chotiyaputta, C.F.E. Roper, E. Jorgensen & N. Sukramongkol. 2005. Systematic of Indo-West Pacific loliginids. Phuket Mar. Biol. Center Res. Bull., 66: 23-26.         [ Links ]


Received: 28 November 2015; Accepted: 29 June 2016

Creative Commons License Todo el contenido de esta revista, excepto dónde está identificado, está bajo una Licencia Creative Commons